Monday, April 12, 2021


The Walkabouts/Conversations in the search for the XV bishop of the Diocese of South Carolina begin today, 12 April 2021, and continue on the 13th and 14th. Find the details here .

According to the diocesan newsletter, the morning sessions will be available to the participants on Zoom and everyone else live on Youtube. They will also be recorded and posted on Youtube for later viewing. The morning session begins at 9:00 a.m. with Morning Prayer. From 10:00 to 12:00 the candidates will answer questions presented to them in a "Panel Discussion." At 12:00 p.m. there will be a Noonday Prayer. The informal evening sessions will be on Zoom but not on Youtube.

The question and answer period from 10 to 12 should be quite interesting since the five candidates will be answering questions that have been sent in from around the diocese.

I expect to return with comments after the three days of conversations. Meanwhile, I encourage everyone to watch as much as one can of the morning sessions on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. It is highly probable that one of the five nominees will become the next bishop of the Diocese of South Carolina.

Friday, April 9, 2021


The Diocese of South Carolina is blessed beyond measure to have five outstanding nominees for the XV bishop of the diocese. The Search Committee is to be commended for the work it has done in assembling this happy, if bewildering, panel. Selecting only one among them will be a hard choice since any one of them would make an excellent bishop.

The first point to celebrate is that this is the first truly diverse class of nominees in the 236 year history of the diocese. The five include two women, one African American man, and an openly gay man (the Rev. Kevin Johnson said in his video interview, at minute 12:30, "a gay man as bishop of South Carolina..."). They are the first women, the first African American, and the first openly homosexual person to be officially nominated for the office of bishop in the Diocese of South Carolina. That in itself is a colossal, if overdue, milestone. If a woman is elected and affirmed, she will be the first female bishop in the history of the diocese. If the African American is tapped, he would be the first bishop of color in the diocese. And, of course, if the gay man is chosen, he would be the first openly homosexual person to head the diocese. If nothing else, this diverse class of nominees is great cause for celebration. It was a long and exceedingly hard road to reach this point, even more reason to set off the fireworks.

I have watched all five of the interviews posted on Youtube. Find the link to them here . I strongly encourage everyone to watch all of them too, all the way through. They run between 19 and 30 minutes each. The "views" numbers show that one nominee has had far more attention than any of the rest. If this means that many people are only interested in one nominee, it would be unfortunate for them and unfair to the rest of the nominees. We should all be lost in admiration and gratitude to all of the five for volunteering to take on what is surely the most challenging job in the Episcopal Church at this moment. All of them deserve, and have earned, everyone's full attention and interest. The least one could do is to listen to what they have to say. There is much wisdom, hope, and inspiration in these "interviews." 

The Walkabouts/Conversations will be on Monday the 12th, Tuesday the 13th, and Wednesday the 14th. They will be conducted on Zoom, recorded, and posted on Youtube. I, for one, will be watching every minute, on Youtube, of the conversations with these wonderful people. I encourage everyone to keep an open mind and an open heart throughout these days. Give everyone of these fine people an equal chance to reveal to you what they have to offer to the diocese.

One trivial point. How to pronounce the word "schism"? Some people say SKIZ-em, while some say SIS-em. Both are acceptable, but the preferred pronunciation in the major dialects of English is the first, SKIZ-em.

Meanwhile, I hope you are enjoying this lovely springtime as much as I am. Here are a few scenes of my garden these days:

In the smaller part of the garden looking toward the central lawn and the larger part of the garden. The large tree is elm. The purple shrubs are loropetalum.

From the lawn looking toward the larger part of the garden. The walk path entrances are to the right and left of the picture. Walkways twine through this part of the garden. 

In places, I enjoy mixing shapes, textures, colors, and forms to give interest. Here dwarf bamboo grows by variegated yucca, juniper, and abelia between large crepe myrtles. 

This aromatic dianthus clump is irresistible.


Monday, April 5, 2021




The choosing of a bishop-elect for the Diocese of South Carolina is scheduled for Saturday, 1 May 2021. A "virtual" (online) meeting of the diocesan convention will name a bishop-elect. The last bishop's election in DSC was fourteen years ago. If the bishop-elect chosen on 1 May is confirmed by the national church, he or she will become the XV bishop of the diocese. South Carolina was one of the nine state associations that founded the Episcopal Church, in the United States, in 1789. It is represented by one of the nine crosses on the blue field of the church flag.

Since Bishop Mark Lawrence quit the Episcopal Church in 2012, there have been two provisional, or temporary, bishops of the Diocese of South Carolina, Charles vonRosenberg and "Skip" Adams, each of whom served for a few years. Both were retired diocesan bishops, one from Tennessee and one New York. Recently, another retired bishop, Henry Parsley, has been serving as a "visiting bishop" in DSC.

Choosing a new diocesan bishop is not a simple, quick, and easy process in the Episcopal Church and it is not meant to be so. Quite the opposite. It is a complicated, detailed, time-consuming exercise that typically takes one and a half to two years time. The present effort in South Carolina is no exception.

The rules and procedures for choosing a bishop are spelled out in detail in the Constitution and Canons of the Episcopal Church and in the Constitution and Canons of the Diocese of South Carolina. Both are freely available on the Internet. The national church sets the rules that all dioceses must honor. The local diocese explains the specific steps to be followed internally. Since the Episcopal Church is hierarchical, each diocese must conform to the constitution and laws of the national church. A diocese is not free to choose a bishop outside of established rules of the Episcopal Church.

A certain amount of the early work in choosing a new bishop in DSC has already been done, and done, as far as one can tell, as per the prescribed rules. Bishop "Skip" Adams, the second provisional, departed the diocese at the end of 2019. This left the Standing Committee as the ecclesiastical authority of the diocese, which it remains. On January 23, 2020, the Rev. Caleb Lee, chair of the Standing Committee, announced the beginning of a search process for the XV bishop of the diocese and the first since the schism of 2012. The Standing Committee set up a 16-member Search Committee, chaired by the Rev. Philip Linder. Owing to the covid pandemic, the search was suspended from April to August of 2020.

Upon recommendation of the Search Committee, the Standing Committee announced a slate of five nominees, the Revs.:

---Geoffrey M. St. John Hoare

---Kevin Allen Johnson

---Terence Alexander Lee

---Calhoun Walpole

---Ruth M. Woodliff-Stanley

The Walkabouts/Candidate Conversations are to occur next, on April 12, 13, and 14. The morning session, from 9 a.m. to noon, will be on Zoom and Youtube. This will be the formal question and answer part. The deadline for submitting questions has passed. In the evenings, there will be smaller discussions not covered on Youtube. Find more about the walk-abouts here .

Then, on May 1, 2021, the election convention will meet via Zoom and Youtube. A bishop's election convention must adhere to the particular and detailed rules laid out in the Diocese of South Carolina's Constitution and Canons. Find it here . Among the most important rules are the following: 

The election convention will meet and vote in two Orders, Clergy and Laity. There must be a majority vote at the same time in both houses. 

In the election of a Bishop, Bishop Coadjutor or Bishop Suffragan, the vote shall be by written or electronic ballot, and by Orders. A concurrent majority of both Orders is necessary to elect a Bishop. (VI. 7.2, p. 6)

The Standing Committee will place the names of the candidates formally into nomination. There can be no nomination from the floor.  

The Standing Committee will place in nomination the names of all persons whose names were submitted to it by the Search Committee and those who have fulfilled the petition requirements. Seconding speeches will be governed by the rules of order. No nominations from the floor will be permitted. (Canon I.9, p. 34).

In the Order of the Clergy, the vote is by individual clergyperson, one person one vote. 

In the Order of the Laity, the vote is by local church, not by person. The local churches of the convention are the parishes and the missions in union with the diocese. A parish may have as many as four delegates while a mission may have as many as two delegates to the election convention. Each parish is given one vote and each mission is given 1/2 vote. 

The following provisions shall govern voting in Convention.

On all questions before the Convention...If a separate vote by Orders is requested, the clergy shall vote individually and the lay delegates by churches (a majority from each parish having one vote and each mission having one-half vote). (IV.7.1, p. 5).

In each parish and mission, the delegation decides collectively how their local church will cast its vote. By my unofficial estimation, there are 13 parishes in the Diocese of South Carolina, 17 missions and 1 worshiping community. If so, according to the rules, this would mean a total of 21 1/2 votes in the Order of the Laity, 13 from parishes and 8 1/2 from missions. A majority of the 21 and 1/2 possible votes would be 11. This could come from any number of combinations, for instance: 11 parishes; 9 parishes and 4 missions; 3 parishes and 16 missions.

Sometimes elections in the Diocese of South Carolina have been decided on the first ballot, and sometimes only after many ballots. In the bishop's election convention of September 27, 1960, fourteen names were placed into nomination. Four ballots passed with no one gaining a majority. On the fifth ballot, the Rev. Gray Temple secured more than half of the vote in both Orders and became the bishop-elect.

The next bishop's election, on May 17, 1980, found seventeen candidates on the ballot. This time, six ballots passed with no one gaining a majority of both Orders. Finally, on the Seventh Ballot, the Rev. Christopher FitzSimons Allison won the majority in both Orders. In that case, the hold-back was the Order of the Clergy which eventually, if somewhat reluctantly, gave 37 of its 71 votes to Allison while the parishes and mission gave 37 of their 51 and 1/2 votes to Allison. 

However, the next bishop's election, on September 9, 1989, was an open and shut case. The Rev. Edward Lloyd Salmon, Jr. swept the field right away. He was elected on the First Ballot with 61 clergy (48 needed) and 30 and 1/2 of the parishes and missions (29 and 1/2 needed).

Mark Lawrence's first election on September 16, 2006, was similar. 

Present were 106 clergy and 223 lay delegates representing 71 local churches...Of the 106 clergy, 54 were necessary. Parishes were given one vote each and missions one-half vote each. For the local churches, 28 votes were necessary for a majority. When the results were announced, 72 clergy and 42 1/2 churches voted for Lawrence, a landslide on the first ballot.  (Caldwell, History Schism SC, p. 169).

Up to the moment a bishop-elect is chosen by the convention, the diocesan rules and procedures dominate the matter. After that, the national church constitution and canons largely govern the process. 

If there is a question about the adherence of the election to the constitution and canons of the diocese, the TEC C and C provides a process for challenging the election. If ten percent of the delegates to the election convention file a formal complaint of irregularities with the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church within ten days of the convention, the PB will direct the matter to a Church Court of Review for a report which will be sent to the officials of the diocese. This is found in the Episcopal Church Constitution and Canons, III, 11, 8 (p. 167-168). Find it here .

So, for instance, if there are 100 official delegates to the election convention on 1 May, 10 of them could file a complaint leading to an investigation and report on the election by a panel of the national church. Even if the report should find no irregularity, the probe itself would leave a cloud of suspicion over the election and the legitimacy of the bishop-elect. If the report should find the bishop-elect had been chosen by unconstitutional means, this would throw the whole process into chaos and could very well lead to the failure of the bishop-elect to gain consents in the next step of the process.

The election of a person in the convention is the selection of a candidate for bishop, not of a bishop per se. The candidate named by the diocesan election convention cannot become a bishop until he or she has been approved both by a majority of the bishops with jurisdiction, of the Episcopal Church, and by a majority of the Standing Committees of the dioceses of the Episcopal Church. Moreover, this must be done within 120 days after the notification of the diocesan election convention's selection.

The TEC C and C requires that the chair of the diocesan Standing Committee, or some other officer, immediately send notification of the selection of the bishop-elect to the Presiding Bishop and to all of the Standing Committees of the Episcopal Church. The PB will then notify the bishops of the Church. The diocesan Standing Committee will notify the other Standing Committees of the Church. If a majority of the Standing Committees of the Episcopal Church formally consent to the election, the evidence is sent to the Presiding Bishop. If a majority of bishops and Standing Committees consent to the diocese's selection, the PB will notify the diocesan Standing Committee that the process is concluded and the bishop-elect may proceed to ordination and consecration.

If a majority of the Standing Committees of all the Dioceses consents to the ordination of the Bishop-elect, the Standing Committee of the Diocese for which the Bishop is elected shall then forward the evidence of the the Presiding Bishop. If the Presiding Bishop receives sufficient statements to indicate a majority of those Bishops consent to the ordination, the Presiding Bishop shall, without delay, notify the Standing Committee of the Diocese for which the Bishop is elected and the Bishop-Elect of the consent. (TEC C and C, III.11.3, p. 164-65).

What happens if the majority of bishops and/or Standing Committees deny approval or fail to give consent within the 120 day window? The PB will declare the bishop's election to be null and void and call for another election.

In case a majority of all the Standing Committees of the Dioceses do not consent to the ordination of the Bishop-elect within one hundred and twenty days from the date of the notification of the election by the Standing Committee of the Diocese for which the Bishop was elected, or in case a majority of all the Bishops exercising jurisdiction do not consent within one hundred and twenty days from the date of notification to them by the Presiding Bishop of the election, the Presiding Bishop shall declare the election null and void and shall give notice to the Standing Committee of the Diocese for which the Bishop was elected and to the Bishop-elect. The Convention of the Diocese may then proceed to a new election. (TEC C and C, III. 11.8, p. 166-67).

This scenario actually happened in the Diocese of South Carolina in 2007. A majority of the bishops gave consent to the election of Mark Lawrence but the diocesan Standing Committees were slow to respond. In fact, many Committees issued denials of consent on suspicion of Lawrence's loyalty to the Episcopal Church. The Presiding Bishop added three days to the 120 required making the deadline of consents as March 12, 2007. By that time, 56 Standing Committee consents had arrived, a bare majority. However, several dioceses had not followed the requirement that actual signatures be made on the official consent forms. Instead, they filed electronic forms which could not be considered official. On March 15, the PB notified the head of the DSC Standing Committee that the election was null and void. With this, the DSC held a second election after which Lawrence received a majority of the Standing Committee and bishops' consents allowing him to be ordained and consecrated bishop of the diocese in 2008.

By my count, there are 111 dioceses of the Episcopal Church today. This means that within 120 days of the election, the Standing Committees of at least 56 dioceses must submit the official forms of consent for the person chosen on May 1 to advance to the office of bishop, that is, assuming the majority of the bishops agree.

Once the consent process is completed, the diocese may proceed with the service of the ordination and consecration of the bishop-elect. The Presiding Bishop is to preside at this service unless he or she names another to lead. Mark Lawrence and his partisans pointedly objected to the presence of the Presiding Bishop at his service in 2008 which, instead, by her permission, was led by the bishop who was head of Province IV. One may safely assume the present Presiding Bishop, Michael Curry, will be welcomed with open arms as the chief consecrator of DSC XV. Curry is a long and devoted pastor of the diocese.

In sum, the process of choosing a new bishop is laid out in detail in the published constitution and laws of both the national church and the local diocese. In order for the end product to be achieved satisfactorily, the established process must be followed faithfully by the specifics in which it is laid out. Enthroning a new diocesan bishop is not easy and it is not quick, but in the end the process serves the best interests of the diocese, the Episcopal Church, and the new bishop. 

The office of bishop is not just another rung on a clergyperson's ladder to retirement. No, it is a special position of sacred trust going back in unbroken succession nearly 2,000 years to Jesus Christ. In South Carolina, the new bishop will be the fifteenth in a line stretching back more than 200 years. This is why the process of choosing a new bishop now must be treated with the utmost measure of regulation, propriety, decorum and respect. When the process is over and the new bishop is finally seated, there must be not even a hint of a doubt about his or her legitimacy and authority.

The next bishop of South Carolina will inherit the most difficult job in all of the Episcopal Church. One of the great and founding dioceses of the Episcopal Church lies seriously wounded and bleeding, and still fighting for its life in the courts of the land. It has suffered a grievous attack by insurgents from within who refused to accept the Church's championship of human rights. On their way out, they tried to take the diocese, its assets, and the local properties with them, and, to that end, they declared legal war on the Episcopal Church. The intrepid Christians in eastern South Carolina who remained with the Episcopal Church have paid a price for doing the right thing, for defending the rights and inclusion of all of God's children in the church. The next bishop will face enormous challenges in binding the deep wounds and healing the brokenness of the past. Whoever becomes the XV bishop of the Diocese of South Carolina must have the full confidence and support of the whole church in order to succeed in this daunting mission. The Episcopal Church expects it. The diocese requires it. The new bishop deserves it.

Sunday, April 4, 2021


Hail thee, festival day!

blest day to be hallowed forever;

day when our Lord was raised,

breaking the kingdom of death.

It is Easter Sunday, 2021, and time to celebrate new life and the victory of good over evil. After a year plus of death and disruption of COVID, have we ever needed a moment to revel in joy more? Not in my lifetime, at least not since the Second World War. My warmest wish is that you and yours enjoy the day to the utmost as we all celebrate our Lord's resurrection.

We have had a glorious early spring in the south. Here are some views of my garden as seen in the past few days. 

Looking from the central lawn into the smaller side of my garden. Mahonia in foreground, Japanese Silver Grass to left, Knockout Rose on right, Burning Bush behind the grass and Lady Banks Rose in bloom.

The Yellow Lady Banks Rose (Rosa banksiae 'Lutea') up closer. It seems that every garden wall in Charleston supports two plants, Confederate Jasmine and Lady Banks Rose, and for good reason. I have trained this one as a bush. It does not bloom for long but when it does bloom, it is covered with countless tiny flowers. 

Reeves Bridal Wreath (Spiraea cantoniensis 'Reeves'), an old southern favorite. As Lady Banks Rose, Bridal Wreath is covered with small flowers in early spring.

Japanese Kerria "Pleniflora' (Kerria japonica "Pleniflora'), aka the Yellow Rose of Texas. This brightens up a corner of my garden in springtime. Kerria is in the rose family but instead of a single trunk, it spreads easily by rhizomes and one does have to trim the new shoots to keep this plant under control. Fortunately, there is a large space available for this one.

All the fair beauty of earth,

from the death of the winter arising!

Every good gift of the year

now with its Master returns.

(Hail Thee Festival day, 1.)

The last year has been difficult. There is no point in pretending otherwise. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a trying time. Thousands, indeed hundreds of thousands, of people died all around us. And, yet, all around us too we now see energetic new growth in the springtime reminding us of the ultimate victory of life over death. Peace.

Thursday, April 1, 2021



on the history of the Episcopal Church schism
in South Carolina
(as of December 8, 2017)

by Ronald James Caldwell, PhD, Professor of History Emeritus


A. General histories.
     I. South Carolina.
          a. Reference.
          b. General. 
     2. The Episcopal Church.
          a. Bibliography.        
          b. General.
         c. On Conservative Movements.
         d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.
             (1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.
             (2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.
     3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.
     4. Liberals and Conservatives.
         a. Liberals.
         b. Conservatives.
B. The Issue of Homosexuality.
     1. General.
     2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.
     3. On the Episcopal Church and Homosexuality.
     4. On Gene Robinson.
C. The First Four Secessions.
     1. San Joaquin.
     2. Pittsburgh.
     3. Quincy.
     4. Fort Worth.
D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.
     1. Diocesan Histories.
     2. Parish Histories.
     3. Online sources.
     4. Paper Documents.
     5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.
     6. The U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.
     7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September
         23, 2015.
E. Biography.


A. General Histories.

1. South Carolina.
a. Reference.

Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006. 1,077 p. Massive collection of articles by authorities, some with bibliographies. Best single reference work on SC.

Caldwell, Ronald J. Charleston Area History: A Bibliography of Works in the Charleston County Public Library, June 2001. Charleston SC: Charleston County Public Library, 2001. 213 p. Partially annotated topical listing of 3,191 works. Useful for background of the schism.

b. General.

Edgar, Walter B. South Carolina: A History. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. 716 p. The best recent narrative history of the state.

Wallace, David Duncan. The History of South Carolina. 4 vols. NY: The American Historical Society, 1934-35. The old standard, detailed, multi-volume history of the state.

Fraser, Walter J. Charleston! Charleston! The History of a Southern City. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1989. 542 p. The best recent narrative history of the city.

2. The Episcopal Church.

a. Bibliography.

Caldwell, Sandra M. and Caldwell, Ronald J. The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607-1991: A Bibliography. NY: Garland, 1993. 528 p.

b. General.

Unfortunately there are relatively few extensive works on the recent history of the Episcopal Church. The best is:
Kirkpatrick, Frank G. The Episcopal Church in Crisis: How Sex, the Bible, and Authority are Dividing the Faithful.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2008. 219 p. Detailed, even accounting of the recent years.

James, Nancy Carol.  The Developing Schism within the Episcopal Church 1960-2010: Social Justice, Ordination of Women, Charismatics, Homosexuality, Extra-Territorial Bishops, ETC.  Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. 259 p. Useful discussion, although not as detailed as Kirkpatrick. Perhaps best for its many interviews with leaders.

Sachs, William and Thomas Holland. Restoring the Ties that Bind: The Grassroots Transformation of the Episcopal Church, Based on Research by the Episcopal Church Foundation. New York: Church Publishing, 2003. 347 p. Discussion of many aspects in the life of the Church in the late twentieth century.

"A Primer on the Government of The Episcopal Church and Its Underlying Theology, offered by the Ecclesiology Committee of the House of Bishops, Fall 2013." 16 p.  Actually an historical survey. Refutes myth the Diocese of SC predated the formation of the Episcopal Church.

Walmsley, Arthur E. "The Episcopal Church: A Half Century of Turmoil and Transformation."  18 p.  Useful accounting, especially on relations of TEC and the rest of the Anglican Communion.

"History of the Episcopal Church (United States)."  Wikipedia. 13 p. .  One should beware of information in this open online encyclopedia; however, this is a useful survey with a good bibliography.

Recent surveys of Episcopal Church history are all brief on the recent years. An example:

Hein, David and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr.  The Episcopalians. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2004. 361 p.  1958-2003 on pages 133-59.

The best study of the post-Second World War Church ends in 1985: Sumner, David E. The Episcopal Church's History 1945-1985. Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse-Barlow, 1987.

The two best recent survey histories of the Episcopal Church are: Prichard, Robert W. A History of the Episcopal Church. 3rd Revised Edition. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 2014 (goes through 2012); and Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press, 1993.

The only recent document collection ends in 1985: Armentrout, Don S. and Robert Boak Slocum.  Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782-1985.  New York: Church Hymnal Corporation, 1994. 652 p.

For the ongoing litigation see the annual summary:
Haley, A.S. "Episcopal Church (USA) Annual Litigation Summary 2014" Feb. 12, 2014. Useful listing but highly partisan interpretation by a lawyer involved in the litigation against TEC.
"Annual Litigation Survey for the Episcopal Church (USA) 2015," Feb. 22, 2015. Still a useful listing if one discounts the thoroughgoing anti-Episcopal Church bias of the author/lawyer. Some of the information presented on SC is not reliable.

For a discussion of declining membership in TEC:
Coats, William R. "Who (or What) Caused the Decline in Membership in the Episcopal Church." 3 p.

Roozen, David. "A Decade of Change in American Congregations: 2000-2010." Hartford Institute for Religion Research, 2011.  Surveys changes in major denominations showing factors of growth and decline.

c. On Conservative Movements.

Daly, Louis C.  "A Church at Risk: The Episcopal 'Renewal' Movement." Dec. 2001, Institute for Democracy Studies.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Plan to Supplant Episcopal Church USA is Revealed. The Washington Post, Jan. 14, 2004. A-4.

Naughton, Jim.  "Following the Money."  The Washington Window, the newspaper of the Diocese of Washington, April 2006, p.1-8.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Conservatives Funding Opposition, Priest Says." The Washington Post, October 24, 2003.

d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.

(1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.

Dator, James and Jan Nunley.  Many Parts, One Body: How the Episcopal Church Works. New York: Church Publishing, 2010. 192 p. Drawn from Dator's Ph.D. dissertation, "The Government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Confederal, Federal or Unitary?" American University, 1959.

Dator, James. "Where is the Locus of Authority within the Episcopal Church?"  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 131-90.

Gundersen, Joan R. "A Response to Mark McCall's 'Is the Episcopal Church Hierarchical?'" Progressive Episcopalians of Pittsburgh, Sept. 17, 2008. 8 p.

Mullin, Robert Bruce. "Affidavit of Dr. Robert Bruce Mullin." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-19. 72 p.

Edgar, Walter.  "Affidavit of Walter Edgar."  In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRoenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-17. 5 p.

(2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.

McCall, Mark. "Is the Episcopal Church hierarchical?" Anglican Communion Institute, September 2008. 89 p.

McCall, Mark.  "The Episcopal Church and Association Law: Dioceses' Legal Right to Withdraw."  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 191-244.

McCall, Mark. "Fatal Flaws: A Response to Dr. Joan Gundersen." Anglican Communion Institute, Sept. 19, 2008. 8 p.

McCall, Mark.  "Affidavit of Mark McCall." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina, Charleston Division, 4/11/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit 13.

3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.

Hassett, Miranda K.  Anglican Communion in Crisis: How Episcopal Dissidents and their African Allies are Reshaping Anglicanism.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. 295 p. Outstanding and detailed.

Radner, Ephraim and Ralph Turner. The Fate of Communion: The Agony of Anglicanism and the Future of the Global Church. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2006. 306 p. Critical of TEC as it calls for greater unity in the Communion.

Solheim, James.  Diversity or Disunity: Reflections on Lambeth 1998. New York: Publishing, 1999. Lengthy discussion of the Lambeth resolutions.

Radner, Ephraim and George R. Sumner, eds.  Reclaiming Faith: Essays on Orthodoxy in the Episcopal Church and the Baltimore Declaration. Grand Rapids: Willism B. Eerdmans, 1993. 298 p. Best discussion of the Baltimore Declaration of 1991.

Douglas, Ian T. and Paul F.M. Zahl.  Understanding the Windsor Report: Two Leaders in the American Church Speak Across the Divide.  New York: Church Publishing, 2005. 184 p. Best guide to the Windsor Report. 

4. Liberals and Conservatives.

a. Liberals.

Evans, Christopher H. Liberalism without Illusions: Renewing an American Christian Tradition. Waco TX: Baylor University Press, 2010. 207 p.

Schmidt, Leigh E. and Sally M. Promey, eds. American Religious Liberalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011. 416 p.

Hollinger, David A.  After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Protestant Liberalism in Modern American History, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, 228 p.

Hedstrom, Matthew.  The Rise of Liberal Religion: Book Culture and American Spirituality in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 278 p.

Coffman, Elesha J.  The Christian Century and the Rise of the Protestant Mainline.  New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 2013. 271 p.

b. Conservatives.

Martin, William.  With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America.  New York: Broadway Books, 1996. 418 p.

Cowan, Douglas E. The Remnant Spirit: Conservative Reform in Mainline Protestantism. Praeger, 2003. 248 p. Episcopal Church and three others.

Greeley, Andrew and Michael Hout.  The Truth about Conservative Christians: What They Think and What They Believe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. 206 p.

Hodges, Chris.  American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. New York: Free Press, 2006. 254 p.

Culver, Sheldon and John Dorhauer. Steeplejacking" How the Christian Right is Hijacking Mainstream Religion. Ig Publishing, 2007. 192 p.

Altemeyer, Bb and Bruce Hunsberger. "Authoritarianism, Religious Fundamentalism, Quest and Prejudices."  The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Vol. 2, No. 2 (1992): 113-22.

Ingham, Michael. "Reclaiming Christian Orthodoxy." Anglican Communion Institute, Oct. 2003. 

B. The Issue of Homosexuality

1. General.

Boswell, John.  Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. 424 p. The landmark work on its topic. Sees scant evidence of anti-homosexuality before the Middle Ages.

Gagnon, Robert A.J. The Bible and Homosexual Practice. Nashville TN: Abingdon Press, 2002. 522 p. A leading work giving the fundamentalist/evangelical interpretation by a professor at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Source used by Mark Lawrence in his remarks to the Episcopal bishops. Opposed by Dale Martin, see below.

Gagnon, Robert A. J.  "Does the Bible Regard Same-Sex Intercourse as Intrinsically Sinful?" July 19, 2003. . Criticism of Powell, see below.

Hill, Wesley. Washed and Waiting: Reflections on Christian Faithfulness and Homosexuality. Zondervan, 2010. 160 p. Professor at Trinity School for Ministry argues for homosexual celibacy.

Martin, Dale. Sex and the Single Savior: Gender and Sexuality in Biblical Interpretation. Louisville KY: Westminster/John Knox, 2006. 268 p. Martin, professor at Yale, is a leading voice among liberals on the issue. Martin and Gagnon give opposing interpretations. See also the critique by opponent Robert Gagnon at .

Powell, Mark Allan. "The Bible and Homosexuality." pp. 19-40 in Faithful Conversations: Christian Perspectives on Homosexuality. James M. Childs, Jr., ed. Fortress Press, 2003. 144 p. See Gagnon, "Does the Bible..." above.

"Religious Groups Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage." The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (the Pew Research Center), Dec. 7, 2012.

Silver, Nate.  "How Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage is Changing, and What It Means."  New York Times Five Thirty Eight Blog  Landmark statistical study of trends.

Von Drehle, David.  "How Gay Marriage Won." Time Vol. 181, No. 13 (April 8, 2013): 16-24.

"Support for Same-Sex Marriage at Record High, but Key Segments Remain Opposed." Pew Research Center, June 8, 2015. 15 p. ).

"Same-sex marriage." Wikipedia.

2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.

Siker, Jeffrey S. ed.  Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate.  Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. 211 p.

Bates, Stephen.  A Church at War: Anglicans and Homosexuality. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. 248 p.

Groves, Phil, ed. The Anglican Communion and Homosexuality. London: SPCK Publishing, 2008. 352 p.

Brittain, Christopher Craig and Andrew McKinnon.  "Homosexuality and the Construction of 'Anglican Orthodoxy': The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion."  Sociology of Religion  Vol. 72, No. 3 (Autumn 2011): 351-73.

"Homosexuality and Anglicanism." Wikipedia. 13 p.  http://en.  Handy review of the Anglican provinces.

"The Meanings of Communion: Anglican Identities, the Sexuality Debates, and Christian Rationality."  Perhaps the fullest discussion available.

3. On TEC and Homosexuality.

Hall, (the Rev.) Caroline J. Addington. A Thorn in the Flesh: How Gay Sexuality is Changing the Episcopal Church. Rowman and Littlefield, 2013. 308 p. Leading discussion of the subject. 

"LGBT in the Church." Episcopal Church website guide to materials. .

Seltser, Barry Jay.  "Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality and the Future of Anglicanism."  Commonweal Vol. 133, No. 10 (May 19, 2006).

"The Episcopal Church and Homosexuality: Activities during 1996."

Markham, Ian.  "Episcopalians, Homosexuality and the General Convention 2006."  Reviews in Religion and Theology Vol. 14, No. 1 (Jan. 2007): 1-5.

Hobson, George. The Episcopal Church, Homosexuality, and the Context of Technology. Eugene OR: Pickwick, 2013. 199 p. Conservative viewpoint; how the computer age has influenced the issue in TEC.

"Same-Sex Relations in the Life of the Church." A report offered by the Theology Committee of the House of Bishops, March 2010. 87 p.    A collection of articles by authorities on both sides and equally balanced between "traditionalists" and "liberals."

Alexander, J. Neil. This Far by Grace: A Bishop's Journey through Questions about Homosexuality. Cambridge MA: Cowley Publications, 2003. 94 p. Discusses topics of homosexuality in theological and scriptural contexts.

Sedgwick, Timothy F. Sex, Moral Teaching, & The Unity of the Church: A Study of the Episcopal Church. Morehouse Publishing, 2014. 104 p.

4. On Gene Robinson.

Robinson, Gene. In the Eye of the Storm: Swept to the Center by God. New York: Church Publishing, 2008. 176 p.
Adams, Elizabeth. Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, 2006. 291 p.

"Love Free or Die: One Man's Fight for Equality," Documentary on Robinson by Macky Alston, 2012, Wolfe Video, DVD, 83 minutes.

C. The First Four Secessions.

1. San Joaquin.

Lamb, Jane Onstad, ed. Hurt, Joy, and the Grace of God: A Resurrection Story of the Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, California.  NY: Applecart Books, 2012. 166 p. 17 essays of Episcopalians' experiences in the Diocese of San Joaquin.

Goodstein, Laurie and Carolyn Marshall.  "Episcopal Diocese Votes to Secede from Church." New York Times Dec. 3, 2006.

"Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin."  Wikipedia

"Anglican Diocese of San Joaquin (ACNA)." Wikipedia.

"An Interview with Bishop John David Schofield." video. 2011. 1hour, 24 minutes. Amazon Instant Video.  [unreviewed]

2. Pittsburgh.

Brittain, Christopher Craig. A Plague on Both Their Houses: Liberal vs. Conservative Christians and the Divorce of the Episcopal Church USA. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. 280 p.

Bonner, Jeremy. Called Out of Darkness into Marvelous Light: A History of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh, 1750-2006. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2009. On the run-up to schism.

Lewis, Harold T. The Recent Unpleasantness: Calvary Church's Role in the Preservation of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Pittsburgh. Wipf & Stock, 2015. 132 p. Author was rector of Calvary Church, 1996-2012.

Richards, Samuel J. The Middle Holds: A History of St. Thomas Episcopal Church, Canonsburg, and the Community it Serves. Closson Press, 2016. 155 p.

Gundersen, Joan R.  "History Revisited: Historical Background of the Proposed Amendment to Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Progressive Episcopalians, Oct. 13, 2004. 4 p.

Mandak, Joe.  "Pittsburgh Diocese Votes to Split from Episcopal Church."  USA Today Oct. 6, 2008. 

"Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Wikipedia 

"Anglican Diocese of Pittsburgh."  Wikipedia

3. Quincy.

"Episcopal Diocese of Quincy."  Wikipedia 

"Diocese of Quincy (ACNA)." Wikipedia

4. Fort Worth.

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (Episcopal Church)."  Wikipedia

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (ACNA)." Wikipedia  

D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.

1. Diocesan Histories.

Caldwell, Ronald James. A History of the Episcopal Church Schism in South Carolina. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2017. 523 p.

Dalcho, Frederick. An Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South-Carolina, from the first settlement of the province, to the war of the revolution... Charleston SC: printed by Arch'd E. Miller for E. Thayer, 1820. 613 p. Classic, detailed history covering up to 1820. Online: .

Thomas, Albert Sidney. A Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina 1820-1957, being a continuation of Dalcho's account, 1670-1820.Columbia SC: Bryan, 1957. 879 p. Online: .

Zeigler, Eugene N., Jr. When Conscience and Power Meet, A Memoir. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2008. 378 p. Memoir of the chancellor of DSC, 1985-2004 p. 305-325.

2. Parish Histories.

Way, William and Virginia Kirkland Donehue, By Grace, Through Faith, A History of Grace Church, Charleston, 1846-1999. Charleston: Grace Episcopal Church, 2000. 188 p.

McIntosh, William, III, The Spiritual Journey of St. Philip's Church, Charleston, S.C., 1906-2012. Charleston: William McIntosh III, 2013. 408 p.

Porwoll, Paul, Against All Odds, History of Saint Andrew's Parish Church, Charleston, 1706-2013. Bloomington IN: WestBow Press, 2014. 454 p.

3. Online Sources.

There is a great deal of material readily available in various online sources, some documentary, some leaning to TEC, and some favoring DSC.

For documents, the best websites are:

The Diocese of South Carolina ( The annual convention journals are given from 2006 to 2016. 

Jubilate Deo, the diocesan newsletter is online starting at June/July 2006. Also provides some court documents.

The Episcopal Church in South Carolina ( "Legal News" gives photocopies of the actual court papers on both sides starting February 28, 2013.

Episcopal Archives ( Provides a great number of national church documents in various collections as far back as 1962.

"Clarity Ensued," Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori's lengthy question-and-answer exchange with the clergy of DSC Feb. 25, 2008 at St. Andrew's of Mt. Pleasant. Video is available in 12 parts at  . Unfortunately these videos are edited to about 90 minutes and omit many other parts of the conference.

Anglican TV

Anglican TV ( provides several videos of Bishop Lawrence:

1-"Mere Anglicanism 2012: The Rt. Rev'd. Mark J. Lawrence" Jan. 23, 2012, 59 minutes; 

2-"Bishop Mark Lawrence's Address SC [February] 2011" 41 minutes; 

3-"Anglican TV Interviews Bishop Lawrence" (Nov. 18, 2012), 45 minutes, discussion of the disassociation.

Anglican TV also interviewed A.S. Haley, aka the Anglican Curmudgeon, on Anglican Unscripted Episode 91 (Feb. 8, 2014), @21-31 minutes. Haley summarizes his views and says TEC is trying "to punish" Lawrence.


YouTube ( offers several videos, as of Mar. 20, 2013: 

1-"Bishop Mark Lawrence Address SC 2011" 41 minutes (see Anglican TV above); 

2-GC2009: A Conversation with Bishop Lawrence" 28 minutes (July 2009, Anaheim CA), from Anglican TV; 

3-"DSC 2010: Bishop Lawrence Addresses Special Convention" 48 minutes (March 26, 2010), from Anglican TV; 

4-Bishop Lawrence's address to special convention, Nov. 17, 2012;

5-"Anglican TV Interviews Bp Mark Lawrence," [Mar. 19, 2014], 18 min.;

6-"Interview with Canon Kendall Harmon after SC 2010 Convention" 12 minutes, Anglican TV; 

7-"DSC 2010 Convention: Alan Runyan Explains Canons" 11 minutes, Anglican TV; 

8-"Convention: The Episcopal Church in South Carolina, January 26, 2013" 1 hour, 56 minutes; 

9-"Bishop vonRosenberg's Address to the Convention" 13 minutes (March 9, 2013); 

10-"Kendall Harmon & Susan Russell on McNeil Lehrer" 9 minutes (February 2007); 

11-"The Anglican Crisis: Its Not about Sex" 6 minutes (Kendall Harmon, August 21, 2009); 

12-"Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

13-Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 21, 2006);  "Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 4 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

14-"Carey and Harmon on A161 Vote" 1 minute (June 20, 2006).

Other Audio/Video

"The Personal Testimony of Mr. Alan Runyan, Attorney for the Diocese of South Carolina." Posted Jan. 13, 2014.  Audio recording of Alan Runyan's presentation at Christ-St. Paul's Church, Jan. 12, 2014.

"Choose this Day" and "The Decision," DVD featuring Kendall Harmon, given out to the attendees of the ACN meeting in Pittsburgh in November of 2005. Strongly condemns TEC and implicitly urges secession from TEC. No longer available online but the full transcripts of both can be found at: and

News articles from the TEC side:

Episcopal News Service ( Articles starting in 2010.

Episcopal Café ( Articles beginning April 12, 2007.

The Living Church ( An old semi-official magazine with a conservative bent. No archive of articles; but it does have a search engine.

South Carolina Episcopalians ( A personal blog by the irrepressible Steve Skardon who invariably takes the anti-TEC side to task. His articles cover Oct. 24, 2009 to present.

Episcopal Forum of South Carolina ( Newsletters and documents

News articles from the DSC side

Titus One Nine ( A blog by the formidable Rev. Dr. Kendall Harmon, a powerful conservative voice in DSC since 1990. Articles are available from May 22, 2007 to present. Primary scope is SC.

Virtue Online (  The major website of news and editorials from the "orthodox" Anglican viewpoint for two decades. Although the scope is worldwide, there are many articles on SC. Articles are archived from December 1995.

American Anglican Council ( Much information on conservative movements in articles since July 18, 1996.

Anglican Communion Institute ( A conservative think tank that produces numerous like-minded essays, some lengthy, on current topics. Articles are from August 2006 to present.

4. Paper Documents.

The archives of the old Diocese of South Carolina and the post-schism DSC, in Diocesan House, Charleston, are closed to the public. Crucial information in the Standing Committee minutes and in the bishop's papers and correspondence remain sealed. Some records of the Standing Committee were turned over to the ECSC lawyers in the "discovery" pre-trial phase in Circuit Court. Among the other valuable paper documents now available:

---The Journals of the annual meetings of the convention of DSC. Published in book form. (Bishop's address, Bishop's diary, Resolutions, financial statistics).

---Jubilate Deo, the newsletter of DSC.

On the TEC side, records are readily available at the Episcopal Archives website listed above.

5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.

Both the DSC and ECSC websites provide many legal documents. For the Circuit Court Trial held in July of 2014 in St. George, the ECSC site provides the full transcript: . Under "Information Regarding the Trial in the Circuit Court in Dorchester County," there are 14 files, one for each day of the trial:

[Day 1] "State of South Carolina, County of Dorchester, Court of Common Pleas, Case No. 2013-CP-18-00013, Transcript of Record, July 8, 2014, St. George, SC." pages 1-211.

[Day 2] "Volume II, State of South Carolina...July 9, 2014..." pages 212-436.

[Day 3] "Volume III, State of South Carolina...July 10, 2014..." pages 437-682.

[Day 4] "Volume IV, State of South Carolina...July 11, 2014..." pages 683-896.

[Day 5] "Volume V, State of South Carolina...July 14, 2014..." pages 897-1120.

[Day 6] "Volume VI, State of South Carolina...July 15, 2014..." pages 1121-1331.

[Day 7] "Volume VII, State of South Carolina...July 16, 2014..." pages 1332-1486.

[Day 8] "Volume VIII, State of South Carolina...July 17, 2014..." pages 1487-1673.

[Day 9] "Volume IX, State of South Carolina...July 18, 2014..." pages 1674-1756.

[Day 10] "Volume X, State of South Carolina...July 21, 2014..." pages 1757-1915.

[Day 11] "Volume XI, State of South Carolina...July 22, 2014..." pages 1916-2135.

[Day 12] "Volume XII, State of South Carolina...July 23, 2014..." pages 2136-2325.

[Day 13] "Volume XIII, State of South Carolina...July 24, 2014..." pages 2326-2438.

[Day 14] "Volume XIV, State of South Carolina...July 25, 2014..." pages 2439-2523.

The Exhibits, or pieces of evidence, officially entered daily into the trial amounted to 1,315 listed items. The Exhibits themselves were not reproduced in the transcript record. Perhaps the most important evidence entered in the trial was the deposition of Mark Lawrence (made to Atty. Thomas Tisdale on June 3, 2014). It was entered in Volume XII (July 23), page 2137 (page 2205 of transcript text): Exhibit D-24 "Deposition Transcript - Mark J. Lawrence." Lawrence's official deposition is 194 pages.

The judgment in the trial was released on February 3, 2015 as the "Final Order" of Judge Goodstein. It is online at:  and .

6. U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Audio of the hearing of January 28, 2015: .

7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September 23, 2015.

A video recording of the hearing is available online at: . An audio copy is available from the Clerk of the Court's Office. There is no official written transcript of the hearing.

A video recording is also available online at YouTube:

E. Biography.

 Biographical sources on SC are scarce and scant. The Wikipedia articles on the bishops and judges are useful.

Almost all of the participants in the story of the schism in SC are alive and active.

A cursory glance of the documents shows certain names outstanding (This is a tentative short list):

Jefferts Schori, Katharine

Allison, Christopher FitzSimons ("Fitz")
Daniel, Clifton, III
Hathaway, Alden Moinet
Henderson, Dorsey F., Jr.
Lawrence, Mark Joseph
Salmon, Edward L., Jr. ("Ed")
Skilton, William J. ("Bill")
vonRosenberg, Charles Glenn ("Charlie")
Wood, Stephen Dwain ("Steve")

Barr, John, III
Burwell, John B.
Fuener, Paul C.
Harmon, Kendall S.
Hills, William L., Jr. ("Roy")
Kronz, Gregory Joseph ("Greg")
Lewis, James B. ("Jim")
Limehouse, Frank F., III
McCormick, John Haden ("Haden")
Miller, Jeffrey S. ("Jeff")
Mills, Ladson Frazier, III ("Punchy")
Sanderson, Marshall Dow ("Dow")
Smith, Colton M.
Smith, Roger W.
Snyder, Gregory ("Greg")
Thurlow, David
Walpole, Calhoun ("Callie")
Wright, J. Michael A.

Behre, Holly
Douglas, Hillery P.
Evans, Lydia
Hamilton, Lonnie, III
Hicks, Josephine H.
Hunter, Joy
Logan, Wade H., III
Lucka, Melinda Adelle
Mann, Barbara
Pennewill, Elizabeth Crommelin ("Boo")
Pringle, Jan
Runyan, C. Alan
Skardon, Steve, Jr.
Tisdale, Thomas Sumter
Wilder, Virginia
Willis, Ann Hester

Goodstein, Diane Schafer
Houck, Charles Weston
Toal, Jean H.
Hearn, Kaye
Hewitt, Blake