Monday, June 21, 2021

NOTES,  21 JUNE 2021

Greetings, blog reader, on this Monday, June 21, 2021. I hope all the Dads out there had a good Father's Day. I did. My twin daughters remembered me well. Let's check in on the crises we have been tracking.

PANDEMIC. America continues to inch toward "normalcy" as rates go on declining and vaccinations arising, however slowly. The pandemic definitely is not over as cases and deaths continue to occur at stubborn rates. In the last month, SC added some 7,000 new cases of COVID-19, and 150 deaths. At the same time, Alabama added 8,000 new cases and 300 deaths. The U.S. as a whole saw 700,000 new cases, and 17,000 deaths in the past 30 days. The plague is not over and no one should jump to that conclusion. 

Vaccinations are rising, however slowly. As of yesterday, the U.S. reported 45.6% of the population to be fully vaccinated. Unfortunately, our southern states continue to lag far behind. In South Carolina, only 36.9% of the people are fully inoculated. As always, Alabama and Mississippi are at the bottom. AL is listing 31.9% and MS, 28.9%. Experts are saying this highly contagious disease will continue to spread widely in the states with low vaccination rates. This stands to reason. With more than two-thirds of the people around us not vaccinated, we southerners need to remain vigilant when we go out in public.

SCHISM IN SC. I know of nothing new to report.

THE ADVENT. Last week, the lay leadership of the Episcopal Cathedral Church of the Advent, in Birmingham AL, released the names of the search committee tasked with selecting the next dean/rector. 

I have reason to believe that soon, perhaps this week, the leadership will release important new decisions about the life of the parish. Keep an eye out in the next few days for big announcements. I do not want to say more about this now. I will return with commentary if and when the announcements are made publicly.

On a very sad note, the state of Alabama is in shock and grief today with the news of an horrific highway crash last Saturday. The pictures are too awful to post here. One may Google the topic to find articles and pictures. 

The wreck occurred in the midst of bad weather, storm Claudette moving northward with heavy rains. It happened at mile marker 138 on I-65 near Greenville AL. I know that very spot well as I have traveled that highway countless times to and from Pensacola in the past 50 years. 

Ten people were killed in the fiery 18 vehicle pile-up. One of the 18 was a van loaded with girls from the Alabama Sheriffs' Girls Ranch at Camp Hill AL. Passers-by pulled the driver out of the mangled and burning wreckage, unconscious (she survived), but could not reach the girls engulfed in the flames. All eight girls aboard burned to death. Two other people also died in the massive wreck.

Some of the girls who died were at-risk youngsters, from abused, neglected, abandoned backgrounds. The Christian girls' ranch was their only chance at a "normal" life. No doubt, the little time they had at the ranch were the best days of their short lives. How cruel life can be sometimes.

Right now, the ranch is raising money for eight funerals. One can find more info on their Facebook page here . They also have a Gofundme page, here .

Like Job, we cannot always know the reasons why bad things happen to good people. Sometimes events just do not make any sense and seem profoundly unfair. The  mind of God is beyond human understanding. What we can know is that God is present with us in the suffering and that, like Job, we must go on being God's people in the world. Through thick and thin, it is our calling, our mission. Peace.

Friday, June 18, 2021



At long last, we have news (and good news it is) from the lay leadership of the Episcopal Cathedral Church of the Advent, in Birmingham AL. Today, they announced the names of the search committee members. The committee is tasked with selecting the next dean and rector of the Advent. The previous dean, Andrew Pearson resigned nearly two months ago. Today's announcement came in a letter from the Chair of the search committee, Don Menendez and the two wardens, John Hargrove and Jay Ezelle. 

Find the announcement here .

The committee has nine members counting the chair. The odd number means there can be no tie votes. Also, as far as I can tell, it is about evenly split among men and women (a good sign).

Also, the Advent website now has a special page devoted to the search where readers may keep abreast of the latest developments. Find it here . This is another good sign that shows improving communications between leaders and ordinary parishioners. 

So, now the search for the next dean and rector of the Advent can get underway. We should all admire the committee members who volunteered to take on this formidable task. They will have a great deal of work to do as those who have been on search committees will know.

One should not expect this search to be quick or easy. Dean and rector of this size church is a big job that calls for an outstanding candidate with certain education and experience. There is a large parish, a clergy staff, and a sizable lay staff as well as the day school. Most of all, this is a parish now seeking to define its identity and correlation with its larger denomination. In short, there is a lot to be considered.

(I suppose the only thing we know for sure is that the pipeline from St. Helena's of Beaufort SC has been closed. The next dean of the Advent definitely will not be coming from St. Helena's.) 

Surely, everyone will agree to offer generous thoughts and prayers in support of the new search committee.  

Thursday, June 17, 2021

NOTES,  17 JUNE 2021

Welcome to my blog, reader, on this Thursday, June 17, 2021. Nothing much new to report today, but it is time for a regular check-in on the crises we have been following for a long time.

PANDEMIC. Numbers of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths continue to decline as they have for the past few months. At the same time, vaccinations are increasing. As of 15 June, 44.4% of Americans are fully vaccinated. Unfortunately, our southern states are lagging way behind the national rate. In SC, 36.3% of the residents are vaccinated. Alabama (30.8%) and Mississippi (28.5%) continue to occupy the bottom slots. This means that the vast majority of people in these states have refused to be vaccinated.

It is difficult to understand why most people in our local states are avoiding inoculations. It is not from lack of supply. There is an abundance of vaccine available and many places in which to get the shots. I expect part of it is political. Unfortunately, the pandemic became a national political issue at the start and remains such. So, the "redder" the state, the lower the vaccination rates. Still, it makes no sense that people would rather die of this horrible disease than to get the shots to be protected against it. I am at a loss.

Of course, vaccination does not prevent contracting COVID-19. There are people who had both shots and still fell ill with the disease. However, their cases were relatively light. This is why we need to remain vigilant, wear masks in public, and keep our distances. We are still in the worst pandemic in a century and are likely to remain in it for months to come.   

SCHISM IN SC.  Still waiting on word from the SC Supreme Court on the appeal of the Episcopal Church side of Judge Edgar Dickson's 2020 order consigning all to the new Anglican diocese. I have a feeling we had better settle in for a long wait. We should be used to that by now. One reason is that two of the four justices considering this appeal are new to this exceedingly large case. 

On a sad note, it occurred to me a few days ago that exactly six years ago, the legal war between these bitter adversaries could have been settled once and for all. In June of 2015, the Episcopal Church made an offer of settlement to the breakaway contingent. The Church offered to hand over claim to all of the 36 parishes in question in return for the entity of the old diocese. The secessionists flatly refused the offer and ridiculed the Church side to boot for making it, questioning their motives. The possibility of peace collapsed. Just think of what we could have been spared. 

Ironically, that is essentially where the two sides are today. The breakaways have the 36 parishes and the Episcopal Church has the entity of the old diocese. One big caveat to this is that the Anglicans have refused to accept the federal court ruling on the diocese and have appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals. Meanwhile, the Anglicans are holding the assets of the pre-schism diocese even though they are under Injunction of the federal district court to refrain from claiming to be in any way the historic diocese. So, it is not quite true that the Church has the diocese and the schismatics have the parishes. The Church has the legal right to the old diocese but it has not yet received its assets. 

If the SC Supreme Court comes down on the side of Dickson, the breakaways will finally have clear legal possession of the 36 parishes. If the federal appeals court comes down on the side of the Church, the Episcopal diocese will own the entity of the historic diocese and its assets. However, the Church side will still have to take some kind of action to gain possession of the assets unless the schismatics voluntarily turn them over which I certainly would not expect. Deny and delay has been the modus operandi of the Anglican side all along. No one should expect them to change now.

I'm just wondering what might have been saved if the two sides had agreed to the compromise offer in June of 2015. We know that the Anglican diocese has been budgeting $.5m/yr for legal costs, no doubt a far too conservative estimate. Yet, if we take even this modest figure and double it for both sides, we come up with $6m spent since the spurned offer of 2015. Of course, the human cost of six years of legal warfare is incalculable. What a shame. What a scandal. What a violation of the Scriptures by the very people who want everyone else to live by them, particularly when it comes to sexual orientation and gender.

Do not get me wrong on this. I am not predicting that the SCSC will side with the breakaways. It is inconceivable to me that the justices would overthrow a previous majority decision of their court in favor of a lowly circuit judge's opinion. If justice, law, and reason prevail, the SCSC will uphold its 2017 decision and order the hand over of the 29 parishes in question.

THE ADVENT.  The vestry of the Episcopal Cathedral Church of the Advent, in Birmingham AL, met last week and discussed terms of a Covenant with the bishop. Apparently, they did not finalize a deal because, to my knowledge, there has been no public announcement of such. If there is a snag, I have no idea what is is.

A big part of the problem at the Advent is poor communication. It has been almost two months since the two wardens sent a letter to the parish announcing the resignation of the dean, Andrew Pearson. Since then, there has been virtually no communication from the clerical and lay leadership of the Advent about the dramatic events going on in the parish or the trajectory into the future. There is a newsletter available on the parish website. It has said very little about what has happened and what is likely to happen at the Advent. Meanwhile, Pearson left and called on his "Friends" to follow him out to form a new church, and his ally, Zac Hicks, posted a video calling Rite I "anti-Christ." The response from the leadership to the people--- crickets. Meanwhile, people are flocking to this blog for information. In the last 30 days, there have been 17,900 hits on this blog, the vast majority on the entries concerning the Advent, the most popular ones getting 1,000 hits each. Really, this blog should not be the source of information about the happenings of the Advent, although I am happy to oblige. The church leadership should be the ones talking to the people. Why they are not is a mystery to me.

(BTW, Zac Hicks is still listed among the Advent's clergy. He has not publicly explained, let alone apologized for, his shocking defamation of Rite I. According to the newsletter, he is going on sabbatical from June 20 to July 31. I wonder whether the hootenanny band will go away too.)

We know the vestry and bishop are working on a "Covenant," but, evidently, no word of this has leaked to the public. At the very least, the Advent leadership could tell the people that something is going on that will address the dramatic events occurring in the church. A church leadership operating in secrecy on and on is unhealthy for any parish. The people of the Advent are entitled to know what is happening in their own church. After all, they are the ones who pay the bills. At the very least, parishioners can contact their vestry members. The list of the vestry membership is posted on the Advent website. Find it here . 

I am sure we all wish these crises would just disappear, go away and leave us alone. Alas, that is not our choice to make. Our choice is to do our best to live through these difficult days as the Christians we claim to be. When it is over, and all is said and done, we can look back with satisfaction that we did all we could to carry out our mission of being God's people in a world of hurt. Peace.


UPDATE on the Advent. 2:00 p.m.  I have reason to believe important decisions have been made by the leadership of the parish and these will be conveyed to the parish soon (let's hope very soon). Presumably these will relate at least to the Covenant that has been under discussion between the parish and the bishop. I would guess the others would have to do with the search for the new dean and forms of corporate worship (as what to do about the hootenanny band). I will relay information as I receive it.


Thursday, June 10, 2021

NOTES,  10 JUNE 2021

Welcome, blog reader. It is Thursday, June 10, 2021 and time to check in on the crises we have been tracking for a long time. There really is not much new to report, so this is just a reminder that I am here and keeping an eye on the matters at hand. 

PANDEMIC. Signs show improving data in most countries, as America. New cases, hospitalizations, and deaths have declined steadily since the winter surge. Vaccinations are continuing although they have slowed a bit. As of June 8, 42.3% of all Americans are fully vaccinated while more than half had had one shot. Sadly, our southern states are bringing up the rear, as usual. Of the 50 states and D.C., South Carolina is #40, at 35.16% vaccinated. Not surprisingly, Alabama is #50 at 29.48%, and Mississippi is dead last, at 27.95%. In most places, restrictions have been removed or lessened. Many people are out and about now as summer arrives.

SCHISM IN SC. Crickets. As usual, still waiting on the courts to act, this time the SC Supreme Court. Sooner or later, and it looks like later, the SCSC will have to render a judgment. The Episcopal diocese is appealing Judge Dickson's decision of 2020 that rejected the SCSC decision of 2017 and awarded all to the breakaway faction. The SCSC has two choices: uphold its 2017 decision and reject Dickson, or, affirm Dickson and reject its 2017 decision. Common sense dictates the former, but no one should jump to the conclusion that this will be the outcome.

THE ADVENT. After the dramatic events in May, the Episcopal Cathedral Church of the Advent, in Birmingham, is in the process of finding its way to a new order and stability. The last time I checked, the Rev. Zac Hicks was still on the payroll. He is the canon for worship who, last month, declared publicly the Episcopal Prayer Book to be anti-Christ (specifically the gap in the Rite I communion liturgy). I watched the two morning services on YouTube last Sunday. There were more traditional Episcopal worship forms in both. However, the "praise band" (what I call the hootenanny band) was still making noise in the early service. The Chancel Lamp was still out, meaning there was no reserve sacrament in the Ambry. I may have missed it, but I did not see an Episcopal Church flag although the U.S. flag was clearly visible.

The vestry and the bishop have been busy working on a "Covenant" to settle tensions between the parish and the diocese. I do not want to say more about this now just to say I believe it likely the Covenant to be finished soon and released to the public. I will post it when I receive it. I think most people will be pleased with the settlement. 

POLITICAL CRISIS. After last fall's election, I thought the political situation in the U.S. had calmed down. Not so. It has worsened. There is a giant clash between pro-democratic revolutionary forces and anti-democratic forces. Unfortunately, the two big parties have become polarized around this. This has become critical for the continuation of the United States as a democratic society. The forces of one party tried to overthrow the government last January 6 and since then have denied and protected this attempted coup. That party has turned against the principles of democracy. Democracy rests on two great principles: equal rights for all people, and majority rule. One party is now defending these and the other party is struggling to build a political system in defiance of them. This is the most serious political crisis in America since the Civil War. The upcoming elections, in 2022 and 2024 will be a test of wills between the pro and anti democratic forces in America.

Finally, my usual sign-off: no one asked for all of this. We did not have a choice. These crises were given to us for the time of our lives. We also have a mission, to be God's people in the world and we must treat these crises in terms of our mission. Peace.


If anyone is wondering what is going on with my garden these days, I will offer a few photos made this week. We had a warm winter and have had copious amounts of rain since then. The result is a lush garden, weeds and all (a garden that will not grow good weeds is not much of a garden).

Most hydrangeas are coming out into full bloom now. Here, Nikko Blue stands before Oak Leaf. There are several kinds of hydrangeas in this shady area. They expect lots of water. 

Nikko Blue is popular in southern yards and gardens and for good reason. In fact, hydrangeas are native to the south. At this time of the year, Oak Leaf hydrangeas, with their long white flower spikes, can be seen growing in abundance in the natural woodlands of Alabama.

Being a native Floridian, I am fond of tropical plants. No plants love lots of rain more than banana trees, and they show it in their exuberance. The ginger to the left will provide aroma to this seating area in the fall.

Looking from the other side, one sees Sabal minor (Louisiana palmetto) and perennials. The seating area is hidden behind these. 

Japanese Pea Shrub (Lespedeza thurnbergii) is an excellent and much under-used deciduous bush for a sunny spot. This one is full grown at six feet across.

Spiraea is one of the best families of shrubs for the garden. I have numerous examples. A common form is Anthony Waterer Spiraea. It makes a small bush and can be tucked into a sunny spot to add color.

For a conversation plant, try this one, Giant Cone Flower (Rudbeckia maxima). It grows six feet tall and puts out these large "cones" of seeds. Likes sun but tolerates some shade. Birds greatly enjoy the seeds. I am sure I have the happiest birds in the county. I give them plenty of natural food, water, and nesting places, and they reward me with their beauty and song. It's a win-win.



Friday, June 4, 2021


The South Carolina Supreme Court has before it the Episcopal Church case, to be specific the appeal of the Episcopal Church and diocese of Judge Edgar Dickson's 2020 order reversing the SCSC decision of Aug. 2, 2017. This is an opportune moment to review the matter now before the SCSC.

First a brief chronology:

---July 13, 2020. Notice of Appeal. The SCSC agreed to accept the appeal of Dickson's order of June 19, 2020.

---Nov. 12, 2020. Appellants' Initial Brief. Appellants are the Episcopal Church and the church diocese.

---Feb. 12, 2021. Respondents' Initial Brief. Respondents are the Anglican Diocese of South Carolina using old title of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of South Carolina and the individual parishes aligned.

---Mar. 4, 2021. Appellants' Reply to Respondents' Initial Brief.

---Apr. 22, 2021. Respondents' Final Brief.

---Apr. 26, 2021. Appellants' Final Brief.

---Apr. 26, 2021. Appellants' Record of the Case. 19 volumes, 9,016 pages.

---May 3, 2021. Briefing and Record Complete.

All of these documents may be found on the SC courts website here .

Now we know that all of the papers have been submitted to the state supreme court. The full case is before the justices in Columbia. 

The court must make two decisions soon. One is whether to engage an acting justice. Of the five sitting justices, one has recused herself, leaving four. In the past, the court has often used a temporary justice to fill out the full bench. They could do the same now.

The other decision is whether to hold a public hearing or go straight to a written decision. Since two of the four justices are new to the case, it would make sense to hold a hearing so that these justices could question the attorneys on both sides as to the details of the case. The longer the justices go without announcing a hearing, the greater the likelihood they will go straight to a written opinion.

On one hand, this case is exceedingly complex and complicated. The full case record mentioned above is mountainous---over 9,000 pages. Imagine the justices, or their poor clerks, having to wade through and make sense of all that.

On the other hand, the matter before the justices is simple. In all of the back-and-forth of the five briefs listed above, there is really one major point. It is the Dennis Canon. 

The SCSC decision of Aug. 2, 2017 ruled in a majority opinion that 28 (actually 29) of the 36 parishes in question had in fact acceded to the Dennis Canon; and therefore the congregations forfeited the property to the trustee, the Episcopal Church, when they declared separation from the Episcopal Church. The Episcopal Church is now the owner of the 28 (29) parish properties. The same for the Camp which is now property of the Episcopal diocesan trustees. 

Judge Dickson declared in his June 19, 2020 order that the parishes had not acceded to the Dennis Canon and they, and the Camp, remain in local hands. In other words, the Episcopal Church did not own the properties.

So, the decision before the justices is really rather simple. It is whether to defend the SCSC decision or to affirm Dickson's order. They must choose one or the other since the two are diametrically opposed. If they choose the SCSC decision, the Episcopal side gets the properties. If they affirm Dickson, the Anglican side gets the properties.

Although I am not a lawyer or legal expert, I just cannot imagine how the justices could justify overturning a SCSC decision that had become the law of the land in favor of a circuit court judge who decided on his own to reverse the state supreme court and to ignore the Remittitur that the SCSC has delivered to him at the start. A Remittitur is an official order to a lower court to implement a higher court decision.

Upholding the SCSC decision would be upholding the law. Affirming Dickson would be throwing into chaos the entire legal system of the state. If a circuit judge is allowed to overrule a state supreme court decision, there would never be order or finality in court decisions. Court rulings would become only suggestions. The supreme court would no longer be supreme. Why have courts at all if that becomes the case?

The matter before the SCSC now is really rather simple, but is far, very far, from being insignificant. 

Thursday, June 3, 2021


NOTES,  3 JUNE 2021

Welcome, blog reader. It is Thursday, June 3, 2021 and time to check in on the crises we have been following for more than a year. Here is how they appear today:

PANDEMIC. The plague of the coronavirus is still ongoing. However, the signs in many countries, as the U.S., are encouraging. New cases, hospitalizations, and deaths are declining across the board in America. Some countries, as India, are still enduring surges. The pandemic is far from over, but it has abated enough in the U.S. for the authorities to ease almost all the restrictions. In general, Americans are anxious to get out and about. It is called "revenge travel."  

The best news in the U.S. is the spread of vaccinations. As of June 1, 40.9% of all Americans have been fully vaccinated and 50.8% have had at least one shot of a vaccine. The country is well on the way to "herd immunity." The president has set July 4 as the goal for this. Unfortunately, our southern states are at or near the bottom of the list in vaccinations. Of the 50 states plus D.C., SC is #41, at 33.83% fully vaccinated. As usual the bottom two states are Alabama (29.23%) and Mississippi (27.13%). The unofficial state motto of Alabama has always been "Thank God for Mississippi."

SCHISM IN SC. Nothing new. We are still waiting on the South Carolina Supreme Court to act on the Episcopal Church's appeal of Judge Dickson's ruling. The last papers were submitted to the SCSC in May. Since then, crickets. As far as I know, no one has any idea of when the justices will act. They can take as long as they wish; and as we know, this court is not known for expediency. It will soon be nine years since the schism of 2012. We are all growing old waiting for closure. Meanwhile, we have no choice but to bide time until the justices hand down their decision. Considering the amount of time that has elapsed in this appeal, my guess is the court will not hold a hearing but will go straight to a written decision on Dickson's order, but this is just speculation.

THE ADVENT. To put it mildly, the Episcopal Cathedral Church of the Advent, in Birmingham AL is in transition. We have been following what has been going on there since May 1 when news broke that Dean Andrew Pearson had submitted his resignation. Considering that 15,200 hits have been made on this  modest blog and its posts on the Advent in the last 30 days, I would say people of that parish are starving for information on what is going on and looking for a little encouragement that matters are improving. I am happy to provide a bit of both although as an outsider, what I know comes from a handful of sources, albeit well-placed and impeccable ones. As I see it, here are the main issues in the Advent today:

---Zac Hicks. On May 19, Hicks posted on the Internet, a 26-minute video of himself talking into the camera arguing to keep Pearson's "Our Liturgy." He trashed Rite I in the prayer book as "anti-Christ," anti-the Gospel," and liturgically against the Gospel. Although meant for the vestry, the video circulated as wildfire in the parish. Explosion. Hicks soon deleted the video from the Internet. He has not offered a public explanation for his shocking remarks let alone an apology. 

Hicks's future at the Advent really is a  matter for the authorities of the parish to handle; and I do not want to say anything more that might impact on this one way or another. I will say that if his video was meant to bolster Pearson's "Our Liturgy," it backfired.

---Covenant. For some weeks now, the vestry has been working on an agreement with the bishop to strengthen relations between the Advent and the Diocese, and by extension the Episcopal Church. Apparently this process is nearing a conclusion and we may expect some news about this later this month. I do not want to say more about this at this  moment lest I jeopardize sensitive issues. I expect we will have big news soon.

---Worship services. Now that covid has declined, all churches are easing back toward "normal" services and programs. The clergy and staff at the Advent are working on restoring as much pre-covid "normality" as they can. At the Advent, I expect one will see less of the camp meeting and more of the formal prayer book liturgy. Personally, I am looking at what will happen to two important symbols: the hootenanny band and the Chancel Lamp (aka Sanctuary Lamp). (Personally I would like to see the band turned off and the the lamp turned on.)

---Search for the new dean. A search committee is being formed to find a new permanent dean to replace Pearson. The Rev. Canon Craig Smalley is the interim dean. This is likely to be a long and difficult search that will go on for months. The understandably unsettled parishioners of the Advent should be patient. If and when I get the list of the search committee, I will post it. Then, parishioners will know whom to contact with their views of the search process.

If last month was the time of problems, this month may well see the beginnings of the solutions of those problems at the Advent. I know for a fact that the clergy and staff of the parish are working as best they can to solve the problems. My view is that everyone has to give them room to do what they think God's will to be for the church. I feel certain that matters will be clearer to everyone before the month is out.

Meanwhile, this is a moment for looking up. The pandemic is easing and life is slowly but surely inching back to "normal." As for SC, "normal" is waiting on the courts to act. I know it seems that there will never be closure in the schism, but we have to know that it will arrive in God's own time which we do not, cannot, understand at the moment. As for the Advent, "normal" means finding its comfortable identity and settling down into the confidence that it too is God's will. 

As always, none of us asked for these difficulties. None of us wanted these crises that were thrust upon us. Yet, here we are for the living of this hour. We must do our best for our mission. Peace.  

Tuesday, June 1, 2021



on the history of the Episcopal Church schism
in South Carolina
(as of December 8, 2017)

by Ronald James Caldwell, PhD, Professor of History Emeritus


A. General histories.
     I. South Carolina.
          a. Reference.
          b. General. 
     2. The Episcopal Church.
          a. Bibliography.        
          b. General.
         c. On Conservative Movements.
         d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.
             (1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.
             (2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.
     3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.
     4. Liberals and Conservatives.
         a. Liberals.
         b. Conservatives.
B. The Issue of Homosexuality.
     1. General.
     2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.
     3. On the Episcopal Church and Homosexuality.
     4. On Gene Robinson.
C. The First Four Secessions.
     1. San Joaquin.
     2. Pittsburgh.
     3. Quincy.
     4. Fort Worth.
D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.
     1. Diocesan Histories.
     2. Parish Histories.
     3. Online sources.
     4. Paper Documents.
     5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.
     6. The U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.
     7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September
         23, 2015.
E. Biography.


A. General Histories.

1. South Carolina.
a. Reference.

Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006. 1,077 p. Massive collection of articles by authorities, some with bibliographies. Best single reference work on SC.

Caldwell, Ronald J. Charleston Area History: A Bibliography of Works in the Charleston County Public Library, June 2001. Charleston SC: Charleston County Public Library, 2001. 213 p. Partially annotated topical listing of 3,191 works. Useful for background of the schism.

b. General.

Edgar, Walter B. South Carolina: A History. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. 716 p. The best recent narrative history of the state.

Wallace, David Duncan. The History of South Carolina. 4 vols. NY: The American Historical Society, 1934-35. The old standard, detailed, multi-volume history of the state.

Fraser, Walter J. Charleston! Charleston! The History of a Southern City. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1989. 542 p. The best recent narrative history of the city.

2. The Episcopal Church.

a. Bibliography.

Caldwell, Sandra M. and Caldwell, Ronald J. The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607-1991: A Bibliography. NY: Garland, 1993. 528 p.

b. General.

Unfortunately there are relatively few extensive works on the recent history of the Episcopal Church. The best is:
Kirkpatrick, Frank G. The Episcopal Church in Crisis: How Sex, the Bible, and Authority are Dividing the Faithful.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2008. 219 p. Detailed, even accounting of the recent years.

James, Nancy Carol.  The Developing Schism within the Episcopal Church 1960-2010: Social Justice, Ordination of Women, Charismatics, Homosexuality, Extra-Territorial Bishops, ETC.  Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. 259 p. Useful discussion, although not as detailed as Kirkpatrick. Perhaps best for its many interviews with leaders.

Sachs, William and Thomas Holland. Restoring the Ties that Bind: The Grassroots Transformation of the Episcopal Church, Based on Research by the Episcopal Church Foundation. New York: Church Publishing, 2003. 347 p. Discussion of many aspects in the life of the Church in the late twentieth century.

"A Primer on the Government of The Episcopal Church and Its Underlying Theology, offered by the Ecclesiology Committee of the House of Bishops, Fall 2013." 16 p.  Actually an historical survey. Refutes myth the Diocese of SC predated the formation of the Episcopal Church.

Walmsley, Arthur E. "The Episcopal Church: A Half Century of Turmoil and Transformation."  18 p.  Useful accounting, especially on relations of TEC and the rest of the Anglican Communion.

"History of the Episcopal Church (United States)."  Wikipedia. 13 p. .  One should beware of information in this open online encyclopedia; however, this is a useful survey with a good bibliography.

Recent surveys of Episcopal Church history are all brief on the recent years. An example:

Hein, David and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr.  The Episcopalians. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2004. 361 p.  1958-2003 on pages 133-59.

The best study of the post-Second World War Church ends in 1985: Sumner, David E. The Episcopal Church's History 1945-1985. Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse-Barlow, 1987.

The two best recent survey histories of the Episcopal Church are: Prichard, Robert W. A History of the Episcopal Church. 3rd Revised Edition. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 2014 (goes through 2012); and Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press, 1993.

The only recent document collection ends in 1985: Armentrout, Don S. and Robert Boak Slocum.  Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782-1985.  New York: Church Hymnal Corporation, 1994. 652 p.

For the ongoing litigation see the annual summary:
Haley, A.S. "Episcopal Church (USA) Annual Litigation Summary 2014" Feb. 12, 2014. Useful listing but highly partisan interpretation by a lawyer involved in the litigation against TEC.
"Annual Litigation Survey for the Episcopal Church (USA) 2015," Feb. 22, 2015. Still a useful listing if one discounts the thoroughgoing anti-Episcopal Church bias of the author/lawyer. Some of the information presented on SC is not reliable.

For a discussion of declining membership in TEC:
Coats, William R. "Who (or What) Caused the Decline in Membership in the Episcopal Church." 3 p.

Roozen, David. "A Decade of Change in American Congregations: 2000-2010." Hartford Institute for Religion Research, 2011.  Surveys changes in major denominations showing factors of growth and decline.

c. On Conservative Movements.

Daly, Louis C.  "A Church at Risk: The Episcopal 'Renewal' Movement." Dec. 2001, Institute for Democracy Studies.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Plan to Supplant Episcopal Church USA is Revealed. The Washington Post, Jan. 14, 2004. A-4.

Naughton, Jim.  "Following the Money."  The Washington Window, the newspaper of the Diocese of Washington, April 2006, p.1-8.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Conservatives Funding Opposition, Priest Says." The Washington Post, October 24, 2003.

d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.

(1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.

Dator, James and Jan Nunley.  Many Parts, One Body: How the Episcopal Church Works. New York: Church Publishing, 2010. 192 p. Drawn from Dator's Ph.D. dissertation, "The Government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Confederal, Federal or Unitary?" American University, 1959.

Dator, James. "Where is the Locus of Authority within the Episcopal Church?"  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 131-90.

Gundersen, Joan R. "A Response to Mark McCall's 'Is the Episcopal Church Hierarchical?'" Progressive Episcopalians of Pittsburgh, Sept. 17, 2008. 8 p.

Mullin, Robert Bruce. "Affidavit of Dr. Robert Bruce Mullin." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-19. 72 p.

Edgar, Walter.  "Affidavit of Walter Edgar."  In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRoenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-17. 5 p.

(2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.

McCall, Mark. "Is the Episcopal Church hierarchical?" Anglican Communion Institute, September 2008. 89 p.

McCall, Mark.  "The Episcopal Church and Association Law: Dioceses' Legal Right to Withdraw."  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 191-244.

McCall, Mark. "Fatal Flaws: A Response to Dr. Joan Gundersen." Anglican Communion Institute, Sept. 19, 2008. 8 p.

McCall, Mark.  "Affidavit of Mark McCall." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina, Charleston Division, 4/11/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit 13.

3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.

Hassett, Miranda K.  Anglican Communion in Crisis: How Episcopal Dissidents and their African Allies are Reshaping Anglicanism.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. 295 p. Outstanding and detailed.

Radner, Ephraim and Ralph Turner. The Fate of Communion: The Agony of Anglicanism and the Future of the Global Church. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2006. 306 p. Critical of TEC as it calls for greater unity in the Communion.

Solheim, James.  Diversity or Disunity: Reflections on Lambeth 1998. New York: Publishing, 1999. Lengthy discussion of the Lambeth resolutions.

Radner, Ephraim and George R. Sumner, eds.  Reclaiming Faith: Essays on Orthodoxy in the Episcopal Church and the Baltimore Declaration. Grand Rapids: Willism B. Eerdmans, 1993. 298 p. Best discussion of the Baltimore Declaration of 1991.

Douglas, Ian T. and Paul F.M. Zahl.  Understanding the Windsor Report: Two Leaders in the American Church Speak Across the Divide.  New York: Church Publishing, 2005. 184 p. Best guide to the Windsor Report. 

4. Liberals and Conservatives.

a. Liberals.

Evans, Christopher H. Liberalism without Illusions: Renewing an American Christian Tradition. Waco TX: Baylor University Press, 2010. 207 p.

Schmidt, Leigh E. and Sally M. Promey, eds. American Religious Liberalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011. 416 p.

Hollinger, David A.  After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Protestant Liberalism in Modern American History, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, 228 p.

Hedstrom, Matthew.  The Rise of Liberal Religion: Book Culture and American Spirituality in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 278 p.

Coffman, Elesha J.  The Christian Century and the Rise of the Protestant Mainline.  New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 2013. 271 p.

b. Conservatives.

Martin, William.  With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America.  New York: Broadway Books, 1996. 418 p.

Cowan, Douglas E. The Remnant Spirit: Conservative Reform in Mainline Protestantism. Praeger, 2003. 248 p. Episcopal Church and three others.

Greeley, Andrew and Michael Hout.  The Truth about Conservative Christians: What They Think and What They Believe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. 206 p.

Hodges, Chris.  American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. New York: Free Press, 2006. 254 p.

Culver, Sheldon and John Dorhauer. Steeplejacking" How the Christian Right is Hijacking Mainstream Religion. Ig Publishing, 2007. 192 p.

Altemeyer, Bb and Bruce Hunsberger. "Authoritarianism, Religious Fundamentalism, Quest and Prejudices."  The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Vol. 2, No. 2 (1992): 113-22.

Ingham, Michael. "Reclaiming Christian Orthodoxy." Anglican Communion Institute, Oct. 2003. 

B. The Issue of Homosexuality

1. General.

Boswell, John.  Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. 424 p. The landmark work on its topic. Sees scant evidence of anti-homosexuality before the Middle Ages.

Gagnon, Robert A.J. The Bible and Homosexual Practice. Nashville TN: Abingdon Press, 2002. 522 p. A leading work giving the fundamentalist/evangelical interpretation by a professor at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Source used by Mark Lawrence in his remarks to the Episcopal bishops. Opposed by Dale Martin, see below.

Gagnon, Robert A. J.  "Does the Bible Regard Same-Sex Intercourse as Intrinsically Sinful?" July 19, 2003. . Criticism of Powell, see below.

Hill, Wesley. Washed and Waiting: Reflections on Christian Faithfulness and Homosexuality. Zondervan, 2010. 160 p. Professor at Trinity School for Ministry argues for homosexual celibacy.

Martin, Dale. Sex and the Single Savior: Gender and Sexuality in Biblical Interpretation. Louisville KY: Westminster/John Knox, 2006. 268 p. Martin, professor at Yale, is a leading voice among liberals on the issue. Martin and Gagnon give opposing interpretations. See also the critique by opponent Robert Gagnon at .

Powell, Mark Allan. "The Bible and Homosexuality." pp. 19-40 in Faithful Conversations: Christian Perspectives on Homosexuality. James M. Childs, Jr., ed. Fortress Press, 2003. 144 p. See Gagnon, "Does the Bible..." above.

"Religious Groups Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage." The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (the Pew Research Center), Dec. 7, 2012.

Silver, Nate.  "How Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage is Changing, and What It Means."  New York Times Five Thirty Eight Blog  Landmark statistical study of trends.

Von Drehle, David.  "How Gay Marriage Won." Time Vol. 181, No. 13 (April 8, 2013): 16-24.

"Support for Same-Sex Marriage at Record High, but Key Segments Remain Opposed." Pew Research Center, June 8, 2015. 15 p. ).

"Same-sex marriage." Wikipedia.

2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.

Siker, Jeffrey S. ed.  Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate.  Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. 211 p.

Bates, Stephen.  A Church at War: Anglicans and Homosexuality. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. 248 p.

Groves, Phil, ed. The Anglican Communion and Homosexuality. London: SPCK Publishing, 2008. 352 p.

Brittain, Christopher Craig and Andrew McKinnon.  "Homosexuality and the Construction of 'Anglican Orthodoxy': The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion."  Sociology of Religion  Vol. 72, No. 3 (Autumn 2011): 351-73.

"Homosexuality and Anglicanism." Wikipedia. 13 p.  http://en.  Handy review of the Anglican provinces.

"The Meanings of Communion: Anglican Identities, the Sexuality Debates, and Christian Rationality."  Perhaps the fullest discussion available.

3. On TEC and Homosexuality.

Hall, (the Rev.) Caroline J. Addington. A Thorn in the Flesh: How Gay Sexuality is Changing the Episcopal Church. Rowman and Littlefield, 2013. 308 p. Leading discussion of the subject. 

"LGBT in the Church." Episcopal Church website guide to materials. .

Seltser, Barry Jay.  "Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality and the Future of Anglicanism."  Commonweal Vol. 133, No. 10 (May 19, 2006).

"The Episcopal Church and Homosexuality: Activities during 1996."

Markham, Ian.  "Episcopalians, Homosexuality and the General Convention 2006."  Reviews in Religion and Theology Vol. 14, No. 1 (Jan. 2007): 1-5.

Hobson, George. The Episcopal Church, Homosexuality, and the Context of Technology. Eugene OR: Pickwick, 2013. 199 p. Conservative viewpoint; how the computer age has influenced the issue in TEC.

"Same-Sex Relations in the Life of the Church." A report offered by the Theology Committee of the House of Bishops, March 2010. 87 p.    A collection of articles by authorities on both sides and equally balanced between "traditionalists" and "liberals."

Alexander, J. Neil. This Far by Grace: A Bishop's Journey through Questions about Homosexuality. Cambridge MA: Cowley Publications, 2003. 94 p. Discusses topics of homosexuality in theological and scriptural contexts.

Sedgwick, Timothy F. Sex, Moral Teaching, & The Unity of the Church: A Study of the Episcopal Church. Morehouse Publishing, 2014. 104 p.

4. On Gene Robinson.

Robinson, Gene. In the Eye of the Storm: Swept to the Center by God. New York: Church Publishing, 2008. 176 p.
Adams, Elizabeth. Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, 2006. 291 p.

"Love Free or Die: One Man's Fight for Equality," Documentary on Robinson by Macky Alston, 2012, Wolfe Video, DVD, 83 minutes.

C. The First Four Secessions.

1. San Joaquin.

Lamb, Jane Onstad, ed. Hurt, Joy, and the Grace of God: A Resurrection Story of the Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, California.  NY: Applecart Books, 2012. 166 p. 17 essays of Episcopalians' experiences in the Diocese of San Joaquin.

Goodstein, Laurie and Carolyn Marshall.  "Episcopal Diocese Votes to Secede from Church." New York Times Dec. 3, 2006.

"Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin."  Wikipedia

"Anglican Diocese of San Joaquin (ACNA)." Wikipedia.

"An Interview with Bishop John David Schofield." video. 2011. 1hour, 24 minutes. Amazon Instant Video.  [unreviewed]

2. Pittsburgh.

Brittain, Christopher Craig. A Plague on Both Their Houses: Liberal vs. Conservative Christians and the Divorce of the Episcopal Church USA. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. 280 p.

Bonner, Jeremy. Called Out of Darkness into Marvelous Light: A History of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh, 1750-2006. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2009. On the run-up to schism.

Lewis, Harold T. The Recent Unpleasantness: Calvary Church's Role in the Preservation of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Pittsburgh. Wipf & Stock, 2015. 132 p. Author was rector of Calvary Church, 1996-2012.

Richards, Samuel J. The Middle Holds: A History of St. Thomas Episcopal Church, Canonsburg, and the Community it Serves. Closson Press, 2016. 155 p.

Gundersen, Joan R.  "History Revisited: Historical Background of the Proposed Amendment to Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Progressive Episcopalians, Oct. 13, 2004. 4 p.

Mandak, Joe.  "Pittsburgh Diocese Votes to Split from Episcopal Church."  USA Today Oct. 6, 2008. 

"Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Wikipedia 

"Anglican Diocese of Pittsburgh."  Wikipedia

3. Quincy.

"Episcopal Diocese of Quincy."  Wikipedia 

"Diocese of Quincy (ACNA)." Wikipedia

4. Fort Worth.

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (Episcopal Church)."  Wikipedia

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (ACNA)." Wikipedia  

D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.

1. Diocesan Histories.

Caldwell, Ronald James. A History of the Episcopal Church Schism in South Carolina. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2017. 523 p.

Dalcho, Frederick. An Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South-Carolina, from the first settlement of the province, to the war of the revolution... Charleston SC: printed by Arch'd E. Miller for E. Thayer, 1820. 613 p. Classic, detailed history covering up to 1820. Online: .

Thomas, Albert Sidney. A Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina 1820-1957, being a continuation of Dalcho's account, 1670-1820.Columbia SC: Bryan, 1957. 879 p. Online: .

Zeigler, Eugene N., Jr. When Conscience and Power Meet, A Memoir. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2008. 378 p. Memoir of the chancellor of DSC, 1985-2004 p. 305-325.

2. Parish Histories.

Way, William and Virginia Kirkland Donehue, By Grace, Through Faith, A History of Grace Church, Charleston, 1846-1999. Charleston: Grace Episcopal Church, 2000. 188 p.

McIntosh, William, III, The Spiritual Journey of St. Philip's Church, Charleston, S.C., 1906-2012. Charleston: William McIntosh III, 2013. 408 p.

Porwoll, Paul, Against All Odds, History of Saint Andrew's Parish Church, Charleston, 1706-2013. Bloomington IN: WestBow Press, 2014. 454 p.

3. Online Sources.

There is a great deal of material readily available in various online sources, some documentary, some leaning to TEC, and some favoring DSC.

For documents, the best websites are:

The Diocese of South Carolina ( The annual convention journals are given from 2006 to 2016. 

Jubilate Deo, the diocesan newsletter is online starting at June/July 2006. Also provides some court documents.

The Episcopal Church in South Carolina ( "Legal News" gives photocopies of the actual court papers on both sides starting February 28, 2013.

Episcopal Archives ( Provides a great number of national church documents in various collections as far back as 1962.

"Clarity Ensued," Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori's lengthy question-and-answer exchange with the clergy of DSC Feb. 25, 2008 at St. Andrew's of Mt. Pleasant. Video is available in 12 parts at  . Unfortunately these videos are edited to about 90 minutes and omit many other parts of the conference.

Anglican TV

Anglican TV ( provides several videos of Bishop Lawrence:

1-"Mere Anglicanism 2012: The Rt. Rev'd. Mark J. Lawrence" Jan. 23, 2012, 59 minutes; 

2-"Bishop Mark Lawrence's Address SC [February] 2011" 41 minutes; 

3-"Anglican TV Interviews Bishop Lawrence" (Nov. 18, 2012), 45 minutes, discussion of the disassociation.

Anglican TV also interviewed A.S. Haley, aka the Anglican Curmudgeon, on Anglican Unscripted Episode 91 (Feb. 8, 2014), @21-31 minutes. Haley summarizes his views and says TEC is trying "to punish" Lawrence.


YouTube ( offers several videos, as of Mar. 20, 2013: 

1-"Bishop Mark Lawrence Address SC 2011" 41 minutes (see Anglican TV above); 

2-GC2009: A Conversation with Bishop Lawrence" 28 minutes (July 2009, Anaheim CA), from Anglican TV; 

3-"DSC 2010: Bishop Lawrence Addresses Special Convention" 48 minutes (March 26, 2010), from Anglican TV; 

4-Bishop Lawrence's address to special convention, Nov. 17, 2012;

5-"Anglican TV Interviews Bp Mark Lawrence," [Mar. 19, 2014], 18 min.;

6-"Interview with Canon Kendall Harmon after SC 2010 Convention" 12 minutes, Anglican TV; 

7-"DSC 2010 Convention: Alan Runyan Explains Canons" 11 minutes, Anglican TV; 

8-"Convention: The Episcopal Church in South Carolina, January 26, 2013" 1 hour, 56 minutes; 

9-"Bishop vonRosenberg's Address to the Convention" 13 minutes (March 9, 2013); 

10-"Kendall Harmon & Susan Russell on McNeil Lehrer" 9 minutes (February 2007); 

11-"The Anglican Crisis: Its Not about Sex" 6 minutes (Kendall Harmon, August 21, 2009); 

12-"Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

13-Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 21, 2006);  "Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 4 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

14-"Carey and Harmon on A161 Vote" 1 minute (June 20, 2006).

Other Audio/Video

"The Personal Testimony of Mr. Alan Runyan, Attorney for the Diocese of South Carolina." Posted Jan. 13, 2014.  Audio recording of Alan Runyan's presentation at Christ-St. Paul's Church, Jan. 12, 2014.

"Choose this Day" and "The Decision," DVD featuring Kendall Harmon, given out to the attendees of the ACN meeting in Pittsburgh in November of 2005. Strongly condemns TEC and implicitly urges secession from TEC. No longer available online but the full transcripts of both can be found at: and

News articles from the TEC side:

Episcopal News Service ( Articles starting in 2010.

Episcopal Café ( Articles beginning April 12, 2007.

The Living Church ( An old semi-official magazine with a conservative bent. No archive of articles; but it does have a search engine.

South Carolina Episcopalians ( A personal blog by the irrepressible Steve Skardon who invariably takes the anti-TEC side to task. His articles cover Oct. 24, 2009 to present.

Episcopal Forum of South Carolina ( Newsletters and documents

News articles from the DSC side

Titus One Nine ( A blog by the formidable Rev. Dr. Kendall Harmon, a powerful conservative voice in DSC since 1990. Articles are available from May 22, 2007 to present. Primary scope is SC.

Virtue Online (  The major website of news and editorials from the "orthodox" Anglican viewpoint for two decades. Although the scope is worldwide, there are many articles on SC. Articles are archived from December 1995.

American Anglican Council ( Much information on conservative movements in articles since July 18, 1996.

Anglican Communion Institute ( A conservative think tank that produces numerous like-minded essays, some lengthy, on current topics. Articles are from August 2006 to present.

4. Paper Documents.

The archives of the old Diocese of South Carolina and the post-schism DSC, in Diocesan House, Charleston, are closed to the public. Crucial information in the Standing Committee minutes and in the bishop's papers and correspondence remain sealed. Some records of the Standing Committee were turned over to the ECSC lawyers in the "discovery" pre-trial phase in Circuit Court. Among the other valuable paper documents now available:

---The Journals of the annual meetings of the convention of DSC. Published in book form. (Bishop's address, Bishop's diary, Resolutions, financial statistics).

---Jubilate Deo, the newsletter of DSC.

On the TEC side, records are readily available at the Episcopal Archives website listed above.

5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.

Both the DSC and ECSC websites provide many legal documents. For the Circuit Court Trial held in July of 2014 in St. George, the ECSC site provides the full transcript: . Under "Information Regarding the Trial in the Circuit Court in Dorchester County," there are 14 files, one for each day of the trial:

[Day 1] "State of South Carolina, County of Dorchester, Court of Common Pleas, Case No. 2013-CP-18-00013, Transcript of Record, July 8, 2014, St. George, SC." pages 1-211.

[Day 2] "Volume II, State of South Carolina...July 9, 2014..." pages 212-436.

[Day 3] "Volume III, State of South Carolina...July 10, 2014..." pages 437-682.

[Day 4] "Volume IV, State of South Carolina...July 11, 2014..." pages 683-896.

[Day 5] "Volume V, State of South Carolina...July 14, 2014..." pages 897-1120.

[Day 6] "Volume VI, State of South Carolina...July 15, 2014..." pages 1121-1331.

[Day 7] "Volume VII, State of South Carolina...July 16, 2014..." pages 1332-1486.

[Day 8] "Volume VIII, State of South Carolina...July 17, 2014..." pages 1487-1673.

[Day 9] "Volume IX, State of South Carolina...July 18, 2014..." pages 1674-1756.

[Day 10] "Volume X, State of South Carolina...July 21, 2014..." pages 1757-1915.

[Day 11] "Volume XI, State of South Carolina...July 22, 2014..." pages 1916-2135.

[Day 12] "Volume XII, State of South Carolina...July 23, 2014..." pages 2136-2325.

[Day 13] "Volume XIII, State of South Carolina...July 24, 2014..." pages 2326-2438.

[Day 14] "Volume XIV, State of South Carolina...July 25, 2014..." pages 2439-2523.

The Exhibits, or pieces of evidence, officially entered daily into the trial amounted to 1,315 listed items. The Exhibits themselves were not reproduced in the transcript record. Perhaps the most important evidence entered in the trial was the deposition of Mark Lawrence (made to Atty. Thomas Tisdale on June 3, 2014). It was entered in Volume XII (July 23), page 2137 (page 2205 of transcript text): Exhibit D-24 "Deposition Transcript - Mark J. Lawrence." Lawrence's official deposition is 194 pages.

The judgment in the trial was released on February 3, 2015 as the "Final Order" of Judge Goodstein. It is online at:  and .

6. U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Audio of the hearing of January 28, 2015: .

7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September 23, 2015.

A video recording of the hearing is available online at: . An audio copy is available from the Clerk of the Court's Office. There is no official written transcript of the hearing.

A video recording is also available online at YouTube:

E. Biography.

 Biographical sources on SC are scarce and scant. The Wikipedia articles on the bishops and judges are useful.

Almost all of the participants in the story of the schism in SC are alive and active.

A cursory glance of the documents shows certain names outstanding (This is a tentative short list):

Jefferts Schori, Katharine

Allison, Christopher FitzSimons ("Fitz")
Daniel, Clifton, III
Hathaway, Alden Moinet
Henderson, Dorsey F., Jr.
Lawrence, Mark Joseph
Salmon, Edward L., Jr. ("Ed")
Skilton, William J. ("Bill")
vonRosenberg, Charles Glenn ("Charlie")
Wood, Stephen Dwain ("Steve")

Barr, John, III
Burwell, John B.
Fuener, Paul C.
Harmon, Kendall S.
Hills, William L., Jr. ("Roy")
Kronz, Gregory Joseph ("Greg")
Lewis, James B. ("Jim")
Limehouse, Frank F., III
McCormick, John Haden ("Haden")
Miller, Jeffrey S. ("Jeff")
Mills, Ladson Frazier, III ("Punchy")
Sanderson, Marshall Dow ("Dow")
Smith, Colton M.
Smith, Roger W.
Snyder, Gregory ("Greg")
Thurlow, David
Walpole, Calhoun ("Callie")
Wright, J. Michael A.

Behre, Holly
Douglas, Hillery P.
Evans, Lydia
Hamilton, Lonnie, III
Hicks, Josephine H.
Hunter, Joy
Logan, Wade H., III
Lucka, Melinda Adelle
Mann, Barbara
Pennewill, Elizabeth Crommelin ("Boo")
Pringle, Jan
Runyan, C. Alan
Skardon, Steve, Jr.
Tisdale, Thomas Sumter
Wilder, Virginia
Willis, Ann Hester

Goodstein, Diane Schafer
Houck, Charles Weston
Toal, Jean H.
Hearn, Kaye
Hewitt, Blake