Monday, November 1, 2021



on the history of the Episcopal Church schism
in South Carolina
(as of December 8, 2017)

by Ronald James Caldwell, PhD, Professor of History Emeritus


A. General histories.
     I. South Carolina.
          a. Reference.
          b. General. 
     2. The Episcopal Church.
          a. Bibliography.        
          b. General.
         c. On Conservative Movements.
         d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.
             (1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.
             (2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.
     3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.
     4. Liberals and Conservatives.
         a. Liberals.
         b. Conservatives.
B. The Issue of Homosexuality.
     1. General.
     2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.
     3. On the Episcopal Church and Homosexuality.
     4. On Gene Robinson.
C. The First Four Secessions.
     1. San Joaquin.
     2. Pittsburgh.
     3. Quincy.
     4. Fort Worth.
D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.
     1. Diocesan Histories.
     2. Parish Histories.
     3. Online sources.
     4. Paper Documents.
     5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.
     6. The U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.
     7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September
         23, 2015.
E. Biography.


A. General Histories.

1. South Carolina.
a. Reference.

Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006. 1,077 p. Massive collection of articles by authorities, some with bibliographies. Best single reference work on SC.

Caldwell, Ronald J. Charleston Area History: A Bibliography of Works in the Charleston County Public Library, June 2001. Charleston SC: Charleston County Public Library, 2001. 213 p. Partially annotated topical listing of 3,191 works. Useful for background of the schism.

b. General.

Edgar, Walter B. South Carolina: A History. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. 716 p. The best recent narrative history of the state.

Wallace, David Duncan. The History of South Carolina. 4 vols. NY: The American Historical Society, 1934-35. The old standard, detailed, multi-volume history of the state.

Fraser, Walter J. Charleston! Charleston! The History of a Southern City. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1989. 542 p. The best recent narrative history of the city.

2. The Episcopal Church.

a. Bibliography.

Caldwell, Sandra M. and Caldwell, Ronald J. The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607-1991: A Bibliography. NY: Garland, 1993. 528 p.

b. General.

Unfortunately there are relatively few extensive works on the recent history of the Episcopal Church. The best is:
Kirkpatrick, Frank G. The Episcopal Church in Crisis: How Sex, the Bible, and Authority are Dividing the Faithful.  Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2008. 219 p. Detailed, even accounting of the recent years.

James, Nancy Carol.  The Developing Schism within the Episcopal Church 1960-2010: Social Justice, Ordination of Women, Charismatics, Homosexuality, Extra-Territorial Bishops, ETC.  Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010. 259 p. Useful discussion, although not as detailed as Kirkpatrick. Perhaps best for its many interviews with leaders.

Sachs, William and Thomas Holland. Restoring the Ties that Bind: The Grassroots Transformation of the Episcopal Church, Based on Research by the Episcopal Church Foundation. New York: Church Publishing, 2003. 347 p. Discussion of many aspects in the life of the Church in the late twentieth century.

"A Primer on the Government of The Episcopal Church and Its Underlying Theology, offered by the Ecclesiology Committee of the House of Bishops, Fall 2013." 16 p.  Actually an historical survey. Refutes myth the Diocese of SC predated the formation of the Episcopal Church.

Walmsley, Arthur E. "The Episcopal Church: A Half Century of Turmoil and Transformation."  18 p.  Useful accounting, especially on relations of TEC and the rest of the Anglican Communion.

"History of the Episcopal Church (United States)."  Wikipedia. 13 p. .  One should beware of information in this open online encyclopedia; however, this is a useful survey with a good bibliography.

Recent surveys of Episcopal Church history are all brief on the recent years. An example:

Hein, David and Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr.  The Episcopalians. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2004. 361 p.  1958-2003 on pages 133-59.

The best study of the post-Second World War Church ends in 1985: Sumner, David E. The Episcopal Church's History 1945-1985. Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse-Barlow, 1987.

The two best recent survey histories of the Episcopal Church are: Prichard, Robert W. A History of the Episcopal Church. 3rd Revised Edition. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 2014 (goes through 2012); and Holmes, David L. A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press, 1993.

The only recent document collection ends in 1985: Armentrout, Don S. and Robert Boak Slocum.  Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782-1985.  New York: Church Hymnal Corporation, 1994. 652 p.

For the ongoing litigation see the annual summary:
Haley, A.S. "Episcopal Church (USA) Annual Litigation Summary 2014" Feb. 12, 2014. Useful listing but highly partisan interpretation by a lawyer involved in the litigation against TEC.
"Annual Litigation Survey for the Episcopal Church (USA) 2015," Feb. 22, 2015. Still a useful listing if one discounts the thoroughgoing anti-Episcopal Church bias of the author/lawyer. Some of the information presented on SC is not reliable.

For a discussion of declining membership in TEC:
Coats, William R. "Who (or What) Caused the Decline in Membership in the Episcopal Church." 3 p.

Roozen, David. "A Decade of Change in American Congregations: 2000-2010." Hartford Institute for Religion Research, 2011.  Surveys changes in major denominations showing factors of growth and decline.

c. On Conservative Movements.

Daly, Louis C.  "A Church at Risk: The Episcopal 'Renewal' Movement." Dec. 2001, Institute for Democracy Studies.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Plan to Supplant Episcopal Church USA is Revealed. The Washington Post, Jan. 14, 2004. A-4.

Naughton, Jim.  "Following the Money."  The Washington Window, the newspaper of the Diocese of Washington, April 2006, p.1-8.

Cooperman, Alan.  "Conservatives Funding Opposition, Priest Says." The Washington Post, October 24, 2003.

d. On the Questions of Hierarchy and Sovereignty.

(1.) For the Central Sovereignty Side.

Dator, James and Jan Nunley.  Many Parts, One Body: How the Episcopal Church Works. New York: Church Publishing, 2010. 192 p. Drawn from Dator's Ph.D. dissertation, "The Government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America: Confederal, Federal or Unitary?" American University, 1959.

Dator, James. "Where is the Locus of Authority within the Episcopal Church?"  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 131-90.

Gundersen, Joan R. "A Response to Mark McCall's 'Is the Episcopal Church Hierarchical?'" Progressive Episcopalians of Pittsburgh, Sept. 17, 2008. 8 p.

Mullin, Robert Bruce. "Affidavit of Dr. Robert Bruce Mullin." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-19. 72 p.

Edgar, Walter.  "Affidavit of Walter Edgar."  In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina Charleston Division, 3/07/13, in vonRoenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit entry 6-17. 5 p.

(2.) For the Local Sovereignty Side.

McCall, Mark. "Is the Episcopal Church hierarchical?" Anglican Communion Institute, September 2008. 89 p.

McCall, Mark.  "The Episcopal Church and Association Law: Dioceses' Legal Right to Withdraw."  The Journal of Episcopal Church Canon Law Vol. 2, No. 1 (Feb. 2011): 191-244.

McCall, Mark. "Fatal Flaws: A Response to Dr. Joan Gundersen." Anglican Communion Institute, Sept. 19, 2008. 8 p.

McCall, Mark.  "Affidavit of Mark McCall." In the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina, Charleston Division, 4/11/13, in vonRosenberg v. Lawrence. Exhibit 13.

3. The Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.

Hassett, Miranda K.  Anglican Communion in Crisis: How Episcopal Dissidents and their African Allies are Reshaping Anglicanism.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. 295 p. Outstanding and detailed.

Radner, Ephraim and Ralph Turner. The Fate of Communion: The Agony of Anglicanism and the Future of the Global Church. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 2006. 306 p. Critical of TEC as it calls for greater unity in the Communion.

Solheim, James.  Diversity or Disunity: Reflections on Lambeth 1998. New York: Publishing, 1999. Lengthy discussion of the Lambeth resolutions.

Radner, Ephraim and George R. Sumner, eds.  Reclaiming Faith: Essays on Orthodoxy in the Episcopal Church and the Baltimore Declaration. Grand Rapids: Willism B. Eerdmans, 1993. 298 p. Best discussion of the Baltimore Declaration of 1991.

Douglas, Ian T. and Paul F.M. Zahl.  Understanding the Windsor Report: Two Leaders in the American Church Speak Across the Divide.  New York: Church Publishing, 2005. 184 p. Best guide to the Windsor Report. 

4. Liberals and Conservatives.

a. Liberals.

Evans, Christopher H. Liberalism without Illusions: Renewing an American Christian Tradition. Waco TX: Baylor University Press, 2010. 207 p.

Schmidt, Leigh E. and Sally M. Promey, eds. American Religious Liberalism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011. 416 p.

Hollinger, David A.  After Cloven Tongues of Fire: Protestant Liberalism in Modern American History, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, 228 p.

Hedstrom, Matthew.  The Rise of Liberal Religion: Book Culture and American Spirituality in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. 278 p.

Coffman, Elesha J.  The Christian Century and the Rise of the Protestant Mainline.  New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 2013. 271 p.

b. Conservatives.

Martin, William.  With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America.  New York: Broadway Books, 1996. 418 p.

Cowan, Douglas E. The Remnant Spirit: Conservative Reform in Mainline Protestantism. Praeger, 2003. 248 p. Episcopal Church and three others.

Greeley, Andrew and Michael Hout.  The Truth about Conservative Christians: What They Think and What They Believe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. 206 p.

Hodges, Chris.  American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America. New York: Free Press, 2006. 254 p.

Culver, Sheldon and John Dorhauer. Steeplejacking" How the Christian Right is Hijacking Mainstream Religion. Ig Publishing, 2007. 192 p.

Altemeyer, Bb and Bruce Hunsberger. "Authoritarianism, Religious Fundamentalism, Quest and Prejudices."  The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion Vol. 2, No. 2 (1992): 113-22.

Ingham, Michael. "Reclaiming Christian Orthodoxy." Anglican Communion Institute, Oct. 2003. 

B. The Issue of Homosexuality

1. General.

Boswell, John.  Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. 424 p. The landmark work on its topic. Sees scant evidence of anti-homosexuality before the Middle Ages.

Gagnon, Robert A.J. The Bible and Homosexual Practice. Nashville TN: Abingdon Press, 2002. 522 p. A leading work giving the fundamentalist/evangelical interpretation by a professor at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Source used by Mark Lawrence in his remarks to the Episcopal bishops. Opposed by Dale Martin, see below.

Gagnon, Robert A. J.  "Does the Bible Regard Same-Sex Intercourse as Intrinsically Sinful?" July 19, 2003. . Criticism of Powell, see below.

Hill, Wesley. Washed and Waiting: Reflections on Christian Faithfulness and Homosexuality. Zondervan, 2010. 160 p. Professor at Trinity School for Ministry argues for homosexual celibacy.

Martin, Dale. Sex and the Single Savior: Gender and Sexuality in Biblical Interpretation. Louisville KY: Westminster/John Knox, 2006. 268 p. Martin, professor at Yale, is a leading voice among liberals on the issue. Martin and Gagnon give opposing interpretations. See also the critique by opponent Robert Gagnon at .

Powell, Mark Allan. "The Bible and Homosexuality." pp. 19-40 in Faithful Conversations: Christian Perspectives on Homosexuality. James M. Childs, Jr., ed. Fortress Press, 2003. 144 p. See Gagnon, "Does the Bible..." above.

"Religious Groups Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage." The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (the Pew Research Center), Dec. 7, 2012.

Silver, Nate.  "How Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage is Changing, and What It Means."  New York Times Five Thirty Eight Blog  Landmark statistical study of trends.

Von Drehle, David.  "How Gay Marriage Won." Time Vol. 181, No. 13 (April 8, 2013): 16-24.

"Support for Same-Sex Marriage at Record High, but Key Segments Remain Opposed." Pew Research Center, June 8, 2015. 15 p. ).

"Same-sex marriage." Wikipedia.

2. On Anglicanism and Homosexuality.

Siker, Jeffrey S. ed.  Homosexuality in the Church: Both Sides of the Debate.  Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. 211 p.

Bates, Stephen.  A Church at War: Anglicans and Homosexuality. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004. 248 p.

Groves, Phil, ed. The Anglican Communion and Homosexuality. London: SPCK Publishing, 2008. 352 p.

Brittain, Christopher Craig and Andrew McKinnon.  "Homosexuality and the Construction of 'Anglican Orthodoxy': The Symbolic Politics of the Anglican Communion."  Sociology of Religion  Vol. 72, No. 3 (Autumn 2011): 351-73.

"Homosexuality and Anglicanism." Wikipedia. 13 p.  http://en.  Handy review of the Anglican provinces.

"The Meanings of Communion: Anglican Identities, the Sexuality Debates, and Christian Rationality."  Perhaps the fullest discussion available.

3. On TEC and Homosexuality.

Hall, (the Rev.) Caroline J. Addington. A Thorn in the Flesh: How Gay Sexuality is Changing the Episcopal Church. Rowman and Littlefield, 2013. 308 p. Leading discussion of the subject. 

"LGBT in the Church." Episcopal Church website guide to materials. .

Seltser, Barry Jay.  "Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality and the Future of Anglicanism."  Commonweal Vol. 133, No. 10 (May 19, 2006).

"The Episcopal Church and Homosexuality: Activities during 1996."

Markham, Ian.  "Episcopalians, Homosexuality and the General Convention 2006."  Reviews in Religion and Theology Vol. 14, No. 1 (Jan. 2007): 1-5.

Hobson, George. The Episcopal Church, Homosexuality, and the Context of Technology. Eugene OR: Pickwick, 2013. 199 p. Conservative viewpoint; how the computer age has influenced the issue in TEC.

"Same-Sex Relations in the Life of the Church." A report offered by the Theology Committee of the House of Bishops, March 2010. 87 p.    A collection of articles by authorities on both sides and equally balanced between "traditionalists" and "liberals."

Alexander, J. Neil. This Far by Grace: A Bishop's Journey through Questions about Homosexuality. Cambridge MA: Cowley Publications, 2003. 94 p. Discusses topics of homosexuality in theological and scriptural contexts.

Sedgwick, Timothy F. Sex, Moral Teaching, & The Unity of the Church: A Study of the Episcopal Church. Morehouse Publishing, 2014. 104 p.

4. On Gene Robinson.

Robinson, Gene. In the Eye of the Storm: Swept to the Center by God. New York: Church Publishing, 2008. 176 p.
Adams, Elizabeth. Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, 2006. 291 p.

"Love Free or Die: One Man's Fight for Equality," Documentary on Robinson by Macky Alston, 2012, Wolfe Video, DVD, 83 minutes.

C. The First Four Secessions.

1. San Joaquin.

Lamb, Jane Onstad, ed. Hurt, Joy, and the Grace of God: A Resurrection Story of the Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, California.  NY: Applecart Books, 2012. 166 p. 17 essays of Episcopalians' experiences in the Diocese of San Joaquin.

Goodstein, Laurie and Carolyn Marshall.  "Episcopal Diocese Votes to Secede from Church." New York Times Dec. 3, 2006.

"Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin."  Wikipedia

"Anglican Diocese of San Joaquin (ACNA)." Wikipedia.

"An Interview with Bishop John David Schofield." video. 2011. 1hour, 24 minutes. Amazon Instant Video.  [unreviewed]

2. Pittsburgh.

Brittain, Christopher Craig. A Plague on Both Their Houses: Liberal vs. Conservative Christians and the Divorce of the Episcopal Church USA. London: Bloomsbury, 2015. 280 p.

Bonner, Jeremy. Called Out of Darkness into Marvelous Light: A History of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh, 1750-2006. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2009. On the run-up to schism.

Lewis, Harold T. The Recent Unpleasantness: Calvary Church's Role in the Preservation of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Pittsburgh. Wipf & Stock, 2015. 132 p. Author was rector of Calvary Church, 1996-2012.

Richards, Samuel J. The Middle Holds: A History of St. Thomas Episcopal Church, Canonsburg, and the Community it Serves. Closson Press, 2016. 155 p.

Gundersen, Joan R.  "History Revisited: Historical Background of the Proposed Amendment to Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Progressive Episcopalians, Oct. 13, 2004. 4 p.

Mandak, Joe.  "Pittsburgh Diocese Votes to Split from Episcopal Church."  USA Today Oct. 6, 2008. 

"Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh." Wikipedia 

"Anglican Diocese of Pittsburgh."  Wikipedia

3. Quincy.

"Episcopal Diocese of Quincy."  Wikipedia 

"Diocese of Quincy (ACNA)." Wikipedia

4. Fort Worth.

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (Episcopal Church)."  Wikipedia

"Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth (ACNA)." Wikipedia  

D. The Diocese of South Carolina and the Episcopal Church in South Carolina.

1. Diocesan Histories.

Caldwell, Ronald James. A History of the Episcopal Church Schism in South Carolina. Eugene OR: Wipf and Stock, 2017. 523 p.

Dalcho, Frederick. An Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South-Carolina, from the first settlement of the province, to the war of the revolution... Charleston SC: printed by Arch'd E. Miller for E. Thayer, 1820. 613 p. Classic, detailed history covering up to 1820. Online: .

Thomas, Albert Sidney. A Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina 1820-1957, being a continuation of Dalcho's account, 1670-1820.Columbia SC: Bryan, 1957. 879 p. Online: .

Zeigler, Eugene N., Jr. When Conscience and Power Meet, A Memoir. Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2008. 378 p. Memoir of the chancellor of DSC, 1985-2004 p. 305-325.

2. Parish Histories.

Way, William and Virginia Kirkland Donehue, By Grace, Through Faith, A History of Grace Church, Charleston, 1846-1999. Charleston: Grace Episcopal Church, 2000. 188 p.

McIntosh, William, III, The Spiritual Journey of St. Philip's Church, Charleston, S.C., 1906-2012. Charleston: William McIntosh III, 2013. 408 p.

Porwoll, Paul, Against All Odds, History of Saint Andrew's Parish Church, Charleston, 1706-2013. Bloomington IN: WestBow Press, 2014. 454 p.

3. Online Sources.

There is a great deal of material readily available in various online sources, some documentary, some leaning to TEC, and some favoring DSC.

For documents, the best websites are:

The Diocese of South Carolina ( The annual convention journals are given from 2006 to 2016. 

Jubilate Deo, the diocesan newsletter is online starting at June/July 2006. Also provides some court documents.

The Episcopal Church in South Carolina ( "Legal News" gives photocopies of the actual court papers on both sides starting February 28, 2013.

Episcopal Archives ( Provides a great number of national church documents in various collections as far back as 1962.

"Clarity Ensued," Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori's lengthy question-and-answer exchange with the clergy of DSC Feb. 25, 2008 at St. Andrew's of Mt. Pleasant. Video is available in 12 parts at  . Unfortunately these videos are edited to about 90 minutes and omit many other parts of the conference.

Anglican TV

Anglican TV ( provides several videos of Bishop Lawrence:

1-"Mere Anglicanism 2012: The Rt. Rev'd. Mark J. Lawrence" Jan. 23, 2012, 59 minutes; 

2-"Bishop Mark Lawrence's Address SC [February] 2011" 41 minutes; 

3-"Anglican TV Interviews Bishop Lawrence" (Nov. 18, 2012), 45 minutes, discussion of the disassociation.

Anglican TV also interviewed A.S. Haley, aka the Anglican Curmudgeon, on Anglican Unscripted Episode 91 (Feb. 8, 2014), @21-31 minutes. Haley summarizes his views and says TEC is trying "to punish" Lawrence.


YouTube ( offers several videos, as of Mar. 20, 2013: 

1-"Bishop Mark Lawrence Address SC 2011" 41 minutes (see Anglican TV above); 

2-GC2009: A Conversation with Bishop Lawrence" 28 minutes (July 2009, Anaheim CA), from Anglican TV; 

3-"DSC 2010: Bishop Lawrence Addresses Special Convention" 48 minutes (March 26, 2010), from Anglican TV; 

4-Bishop Lawrence's address to special convention, Nov. 17, 2012;

5-"Anglican TV Interviews Bp Mark Lawrence," [Mar. 19, 2014], 18 min.;

6-"Interview with Canon Kendall Harmon after SC 2010 Convention" 12 minutes, Anglican TV; 

7-"DSC 2010 Convention: Alan Runyan Explains Canons" 11 minutes, Anglican TV; 

8-"Convention: The Episcopal Church in South Carolina, January 26, 2013" 1 hour, 56 minutes; 

9-"Bishop vonRosenberg's Address to the Convention" 13 minutes (March 9, 2013); 

10-"Kendall Harmon & Susan Russell on McNeil Lehrer" 9 minutes (February 2007); 

11-"The Anglican Crisis: Its Not about Sex" 6 minutes (Kendall Harmon, August 21, 2009); 

12-"Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

13-Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 3 minutes (June 21, 2006);  "Standing Firm Interviews: Dr. Kendall Harmon" 4 minutes (June 19, 2006); 

14-"Carey and Harmon on A161 Vote" 1 minute (June 20, 2006).

Other Audio/Video

"The Personal Testimony of Mr. Alan Runyan, Attorney for the Diocese of South Carolina." Posted Jan. 13, 2014.  Audio recording of Alan Runyan's presentation at Christ-St. Paul's Church, Jan. 12, 2014.

"Choose this Day" and "The Decision," DVD featuring Kendall Harmon, given out to the attendees of the ACN meeting in Pittsburgh in November of 2005. Strongly condemns TEC and implicitly urges secession from TEC. No longer available online but the full transcripts of both can be found at: and

News articles from the TEC side:

Episcopal News Service ( Articles starting in 2010.

Episcopal Café ( Articles beginning April 12, 2007.

The Living Church ( An old semi-official magazine with a conservative bent. No archive of articles; but it does have a search engine.

South Carolina Episcopalians ( A personal blog by the irrepressible Steve Skardon who invariably takes the anti-TEC side to task. His articles cover Oct. 24, 2009 to present.

Episcopal Forum of South Carolina ( Newsletters and documents

News articles from the DSC side

Titus One Nine ( A blog by the formidable Rev. Dr. Kendall Harmon, a powerful conservative voice in DSC since 1990. Articles are available from May 22, 2007 to present. Primary scope is SC.

Virtue Online (  The major website of news and editorials from the "orthodox" Anglican viewpoint for two decades. Although the scope is worldwide, there are many articles on SC. Articles are archived from December 1995.

American Anglican Council ( Much information on conservative movements in articles since July 18, 1996.

Anglican Communion Institute ( A conservative think tank that produces numerous like-minded essays, some lengthy, on current topics. Articles are from August 2006 to present.

4. Paper Documents.

The archives of the old Diocese of South Carolina and the post-schism DSC, in Diocesan House, Charleston, are closed to the public. Crucial information in the Standing Committee minutes and in the bishop's papers and correspondence remain sealed. Some records of the Standing Committee were turned over to the ECSC lawyers in the "discovery" pre-trial phase in Circuit Court. Among the other valuable paper documents now available:

---The Journals of the annual meetings of the convention of DSC. Published in book form. (Bishop's address, Bishop's diary, Resolutions, financial statistics).

---Jubilate Deo, the newsletter of DSC.

On the TEC side, records are readily available at the Episcopal Archives website listed above.

5. Circuit Court Trial, July 2014.

Both the DSC and ECSC websites provide many legal documents. For the Circuit Court Trial held in July of 2014 in St. George, the ECSC site provides the full transcript: . Under "Information Regarding the Trial in the Circuit Court in Dorchester County," there are 14 files, one for each day of the trial:

[Day 1] "State of South Carolina, County of Dorchester, Court of Common Pleas, Case No. 2013-CP-18-00013, Transcript of Record, July 8, 2014, St. George, SC." pages 1-211.

[Day 2] "Volume II, State of South Carolina...July 9, 2014..." pages 212-436.

[Day 3] "Volume III, State of South Carolina...July 10, 2014..." pages 437-682.

[Day 4] "Volume IV, State of South Carolina...July 11, 2014..." pages 683-896.

[Day 5] "Volume V, State of South Carolina...July 14, 2014..." pages 897-1120.

[Day 6] "Volume VI, State of South Carolina...July 15, 2014..." pages 1121-1331.

[Day 7] "Volume VII, State of South Carolina...July 16, 2014..." pages 1332-1486.

[Day 8] "Volume VIII, State of South Carolina...July 17, 2014..." pages 1487-1673.

[Day 9] "Volume IX, State of South Carolina...July 18, 2014..." pages 1674-1756.

[Day 10] "Volume X, State of South Carolina...July 21, 2014..." pages 1757-1915.

[Day 11] "Volume XI, State of South Carolina...July 22, 2014..." pages 1916-2135.

[Day 12] "Volume XII, State of South Carolina...July 23, 2014..." pages 2136-2325.

[Day 13] "Volume XIII, State of South Carolina...July 24, 2014..." pages 2326-2438.

[Day 14] "Volume XIV, State of South Carolina...July 25, 2014..." pages 2439-2523.

The Exhibits, or pieces of evidence, officially entered daily into the trial amounted to 1,315 listed items. The Exhibits themselves were not reproduced in the transcript record. Perhaps the most important evidence entered in the trial was the deposition of Mark Lawrence (made to Atty. Thomas Tisdale on June 3, 2014). It was entered in Volume XII (July 23), page 2137 (page 2205 of transcript text): Exhibit D-24 "Deposition Transcript - Mark J. Lawrence." Lawrence's official deposition is 194 pages.

The judgment in the trial was released on February 3, 2015 as the "Final Order" of Judge Goodstein. It is online at:  and .

6. U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals.

Audio of the hearing of January 28, 2015: .

7. The South Carolina Supreme Court Hearing, September 23, 2015.

A video recording of the hearing is available online at: . An audio copy is available from the Clerk of the Court's Office. There is no official written transcript of the hearing.

A video recording is also available online at YouTube:

E. Biography.

 Biographical sources on SC are scarce and scant. The Wikipedia articles on the bishops and judges are useful.

Almost all of the participants in the story of the schism in SC are alive and active.

A cursory glance of the documents shows certain names outstanding (This is a tentative short list):

Jefferts Schori, Katharine

Allison, Christopher FitzSimons ("Fitz")
Daniel, Clifton, III
Hathaway, Alden Moinet
Henderson, Dorsey F., Jr.
Lawrence, Mark Joseph
Salmon, Edward L., Jr. ("Ed")
Skilton, William J. ("Bill")
vonRosenberg, Charles Glenn ("Charlie")
Wood, Stephen Dwain ("Steve")

Barr, John, III
Burwell, John B.
Fuener, Paul C.
Harmon, Kendall S.
Hills, William L., Jr. ("Roy")
Kronz, Gregory Joseph ("Greg")
Lewis, James B. ("Jim")
Limehouse, Frank F., III
McCormick, John Haden ("Haden")
Miller, Jeffrey S. ("Jeff")
Mills, Ladson Frazier, III ("Punchy")
Sanderson, Marshall Dow ("Dow")
Smith, Colton M.
Smith, Roger W.
Snyder, Gregory ("Greg")
Thurlow, David
Walpole, Calhoun ("Callie")
Wright, J. Michael A.

Behre, Holly
Douglas, Hillery P.
Evans, Lydia
Hamilton, Lonnie, III
Hicks, Josephine H.
Hunter, Joy
Logan, Wade H., III
Lucka, Melinda Adelle
Mann, Barbara
Pennewill, Elizabeth Crommelin ("Boo")
Pringle, Jan
Runyan, C. Alan
Skardon, Steve, Jr.
Tisdale, Thomas Sumter
Wilder, Virginia
Willis, Ann Hester

Goodstein, Diane Schafer
Houck, Charles Weston
Toal, Jean H.
Hearn, Kaye
Hewitt, Blake